Imperial Cleaning

History of Austria

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He had short-lived affairs with both Janice Barnes and Gabrielle Pascal, but April Ramirez would be the next woman to truly steal his heart. They soon began to date and, by , were engaged. In , Mike and April finally had the chance to be together when her husband granted her an annulment. They quickly became engaged again. However, soon afterwards, Mike left Salem to volunteer in Israel where they needed medical volunteers, but also to be closer to Jeremy.

He intended to return to Salem, but kept postponing it. Frustrated, April broke off the engagement and Mike decided to stay in Israel with Jeremy. In , Mike returned to Salem brokenhearted after a woman in Israel tricked him into running weapons. For the next several years, he dedicated his whole life to his work and helping Jennifer throughout her many dramatic situations.

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When that failed, they pushed Nurse Ali McIntyre, with whom Mike had a brief relationship and who was emotionally unstable, to the edge and convinced her to sue Mike for sexual harassment. Carrie would stand by his side throughout the investigation. Mike and Carrie continued to fight their feelings, but Mike began to slowly make Carrie choose between him and Austin. While on a road trip, Mike and Carrie ended up in Las Vegas.

However, Austin found them together, decked Mike, and ditched Carrie. Soon afterwards, Mike was cleared of all the allegations against him and Carrie and Austin were divorced.

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By the beginning of the Bronze Age fortifications were appearing, protecting the commercial centres of the mining, processing and trading of copper and tin. In the late Bronze Age appeared the Urnfield culture , in which salt mining commenced in the northern salt mines at Hallstatt. The Iron Age in Austria is represented by the Hallstatt culture , which succeeded the Urnfield culture, under influences from the Mediterranean civilizations and Steppe peoples.

The culture is often described in two zones, Western and Eastern, through which flowed the rivers Enns , Ybbs and Inn. The West Hallstatt area was in contact with the Greek colonies on the Ligurian coast. In the Alps, contacts with the Etruscans and under Greek influence regions in Italy were maintained. The East had close links with the Steppe Peoples who had passed over the Carpathian Basin from the southern Russian steppes. The population of Hallstatt drew its wealth from the salt industry.

Imports of luxury goods stretching from the North and Baltic seas to Africa have been discovered in the cemetery at Hallstatt. The oldest evidence of an Austrian wine industry was discovered in Zagersdorf , Burgenland in a grave mound. The Cult Wagon of Strettweg , Styria is evidence of contemporary religious life. This culture gave rise to the first-recorded local tribal Taurisci , Ambidravi , Ambisontes and place names. Out of this arose Noricum 2nd century to c.

It was confined to present-day southern and eastern Austria and part of Slovenia. The West was settled by the Raeti. Dürrnberg and Hallein Salzburg were Celtic salt settlements. In eastern Styria and the Burgenland e. This led to the creation of a Roman trading outpost on the Magdalensberg in the early 1st century b. Fortified hilltop settlements oppida , e. Kulm east Styria , Idunum mod.

Villach , Burg Schwarzenbach , and Braunsberg Hainburg , were centers of public life. Some cities such as Linz Lentos date back to this period also. Although Noricum and Rome had been active trading partners and had formed military alliances, around 15 BC the majority of what we now know as Austria was annexed to the Roman Empire, beginning years of so-called "Austria romana" as it became known in the 19th century.

Noricum became a province of the Roman Empire. During the reign of the Emperor Claudius 41—54 AD , the Roman province of Noricum had as its boundaries, to the north the Danube , to the north-east the Vienna Woods , in the east approximately the current eastern border of Styria while in the south-east and south it was bounded by the Eisack and Drava rivers.

Later, under Diocletian — , the province was divided along the main Alpine ridge into a northern Noricum ripense and a southern Noricum mediterraneum.

Across the Ziller in the west, corresponding to the present provinces of Vorarlberg and Tyrol lay the province of Raetia incorporating the earlier territory of Vindelicia. In the east lay Pannonia , today's Burgenland. To the south was Region 10, Venetia et Histria. The Romans built many cities that survive today. Significant archaeological sites from the Roman period include Kleinklein Styria and Zollfeld Magdalensberg.

After the arrival of the Bavarii , Austria became the object of missionary efforts, such as Rupert and Virgil of the Irish Mission. As the fabric of the Roman Empire crumbled, the ability of Raetia, Noricum and Pannonia to defend themselves became increasingly problematic.

Radagaisus overran part of the country in After several raids on Italy, the Visigoths arrived in , under Alaric I. As described by Zosimus , Alaric set out from Emona modern Ljubljana which lay between Pannonia Superior and Noricum over the Carnic Alps arriving at Virunum in Noricum, as had been agreed to by the Roman general Stilicho , following several skirmishes between the two.

Alaric was voted a large amount of money to maintain peace, by the Roman Senate, at Stilicho 's instigation. The Visogoths eventually moved on, allowing a short period of stability apart from domestic disturbances in The death of Attila in allowed the Ostrogoths to scatter his Hunnish empire.

Many tribes, formerly under the Huns now started to settle along the Danube basin and assert their independence. Among these were the Rugii , who formed their own lands Rugiland across the Danube and started to impose their will on Noricum. From Ostrogoths and Alamanni invaded the area but did not subdue it. Even after Odoacer had overthrown the last Western Roman Emperor in , there remained remnants of the Roman administration in the provinces before the final collapse of Late Antiquity in this area see Severinus of Noricum and Flaccitheus.

Noricum was eventually abandoned in , [16] while Raetia was abandoned by the Romans to the Alamanni. Abandoned and devastated towns and buildings slowly fell into disarray during the 4th and 5th centuries. By the area was part of the lands of the Ostragoth king Theodoric and there were no remaining Roman influences.

The collapse of the Ostragothic empire began with his death in During the second phase of the Migration Period — AD the Langobardii Lombards made a brief appearance in the northern and eastern regions around AD, but had been driven south into northern Italy by the Avars by The Alpine Slavs Carantanii elected a Bavarian, Odilo, as their count and successfully resisted further Avar subjugation. The eastern Slavic tribe of the Carantanians migrated westward along the Drava into the Eastern Alps in the wake of the expansion of their Avar overlords during the 7th century, mixed with the Celto-Romanic population, and established the realm of Carantania later Carinthia , which covered much of eastern and central Austrian territory and was the first independent Slavic state in Europe, centred at Zollfeld.

Together with the indigenous population they were able to resist further encroachment of the neighboring Franks and Avars in the southeastern Alps. In the meantime, the Germanic tribe of the Bavarii Bavarians , vassals of the Franks , had developed in the 5th and 6th century in the west of the country and in what is now known as Bavaria , while what is today Vorarlberg had been settled by the Alemans. In the northern alps the Bavarians had become established as a stem dukedom around AD, under the rule of the Agilolfings till as an eastern outpost of the Frankish empire.

At that time the lands occupied by the Bavarians extended south to current South Tyrol , and east to the river Enns. The administrative centre was at Regensburg. Those groups mixed with the Rhaeto-Romanic population and pushed it up into the mountains along the Puster Valley. The westward Slavic migration stopped further Bavarian migration eastwards by Their most westward expansion was reached in at the Puster Valley Pustertal , but gradually fell back to the Enns River by Carantania, under pressure of the Avars, lost its independence to Bavaria in and was divided between Bavaria western part and the Avar Khaganate eastern part.

The Bavarian part of it became a margraviate. During the following centuries, Bavarian settlers went down the Danube and up the Alps, a process through which Austria was to become the mostly German-speaking country it is today. Bavarian relationship with the Franks varied, achieving temporary independence by AD, only to be subjugated by Charles Martel. Charlemagne subsequently led the Franks and Bavarians against the eastern Avars in , so that by they had fallen back to the east of the Fischa and Leitha rivers.

Among these was an eastern march, the Avar March Awarenmark , corresponding roughly to present day Lower Austria , bordered by the rivers Enns , Raab and Drava , while to the south lay the March of Carinthia. Both marches were collectively referred to as the Marcha orientalis Eastern March , a prefecture of the Duchy of Bavaria. In , the Avars, with Charlemagne's permission, led by the Avar Khagan, settled south-eastward from Vienna. A new threat appeared in , the Hungarians , following the pattern of displacement from more eastern territories by superior forces.

By the Hungarians were present in large numbers on the Hungarian Plain from which they raided the Frankish domains. They defeated the Moravians and in defeated the Bavarians at the Battle of Pressburg and by had overrun the marches forcing the Franks and Bavarians back to the Enns River.

Bavaria became a Margraviate under Engeldeo — and was re-established as a Duchy under Arnulf the Bad — who united it with the Duchy of Carinthia , occupying most of the eastern alps. This proved short lived. The next Duke was Henry I — , who was Otto's brother. In Otto successfully forced back the Hungarians at the Battle of Lechfeld , beginning a slow reconquest of the eastern lands, including Istria and Carniola.

Otto I re-established the eastern march, and was succeeded by Otto II in , and found himself in conflict with Henry who he deposed, allowing him to re-organise the duchies of his empire. Otto considerably reduced Bavaria, re-establishing Carinthia to the south. To the east, he established a new Bavarian Eastern March , subsequently known as Austria, under Leopold Luitpold , count of Babenberg in The marches were overseen by a comes or dux as appointed by the emperor.

These titles are usually translated as count or duke, but these terms conveyed very different meanings in the Early Middle Ages , so the Latin versions are to be preferred. In Lombardic speaking countries, the title was eventually regularized to margrave German: In addition, for a long time the form Osterlant Ostland or 'Eastland' was in use, the inhabitants being referred to as Ostermann or Osterfrau.

The term Ostmark is not historically certain and appears to be a translation of marchia orientalis that came up only much later. The Babenbergs pursued a policy of settling the country, clearing forests and founding towns and monasteries. They ruled the March from Pöchlarn initially, and later from Melk , continually expanding the territory eastward along the Danube valley, so that by it reached Vienna.

A 'core' territory had finally been established. The land contained the remnant of many prior civilisations, but the Bavarians predominated, except in the Lake Constance area to the west occupied by the Alemanni Vorarlberg. Pockets of the Celto-Romanic population Walchen or Welsche persisted, such as around Salzburg , and Roman place names persisted, such as Juvavum Salzburg.

In addition this population was distinguished by Christianity and by their language, a Latin dialect Romansch. Salzburg was already a bishopric , and by an archbishopric. Although the Germanic Bavarians steadily replaced Romansch as the main language, they adopted many Roman customs and became increasingly Christianized. Similarly in the east, German replaced the Slavic language. In this setting, Austria, still subject to Bavaria was a relatively small player.

The Babenberg Margraves controlled very little of modern Austria. Salzburg, historically part of Bavaria became an ecclesiastical territory, while Styria was part of the Carinthian Duchy. The Babenbergs had relatively small holdings, with not only Salzburg but the lands of the Diocese of Passau lying in the hands of the church, and the nobility controlling much of the rest. However they embarked on a programme of consolidating their power base. One such method was to employ indentures servants such as the Kuenringern family as Ministeriales and given considerable military and administrative duties.

The path was not always smooth. Leopold then concentrated on pacifying the nobility. His monastic foundations, particularly Klosterneuburg and Heiligenkreuz , led to his posthumous canonisation in , and he became Austria's patron saint. Leopold further enhanced the status of Austria by also becoming Duke of Bavaria in , as Leopold I. Bavaria itself had been in the hands of the Welf Guelph dynasty, who were pitted against the Hohenstaufen. The latter came to the imperial throne in in the person of Conrad III — ; the Duke of Bavaria, Henry the Proud , was himself a candidate for the imperial crown and disputed the election of Conrad, and was subsequently deprived of the Duchy, which was given to Leopold IV.

In the meantime, Conrad had been succeeded as emperor by his nephew Frederick I Barbarossa — , who was descended from both the Welfs and Hohenstauffens and sought to end the conflicts within Germany.

To this end he returned Bavaria to the Welfs in , but as compensation elevated Austria to a duchy through an instrument known as the Privilegium Minus. Austria was now an independent dominion within the Holy Roman Empire, and Henry moved his official residence to Vienna that year.

Styria had been carved out of the northern marches of Carinthia , and only raised to the status of Duchy in However the territory of the Duchy of Styria extended far beyond the current state of Styria , including parts of present-day Slovenia Lower Styria , and also parts of Upper Austria the Traungau, the area around Wels and Steyr and Lower Austria the county of Pitten , today's districts of Wiener Neustadt and Neunkirchen.

Leopold is perhaps best known for his imprisonment of the British king, Richard I following the Third Crusade — , in at Dürnstein. The ransom money he received helped finance many of his projects. At that time, the Babenberg Dukes came to be one of the most influential ruling families in the region, peaking in the reign of Henry's grandson Leopold VI the Glorious Luitpold der Glorreiche — , the fourth Duke.

In he divided the land into two areas divided by the River Enns. That part above the Enns became Ob erhalb der Enns Above the Enns or 'Upper Austria' Oberösterreich , although other names such as supra anasum from an old Latin name for the river , and Austria superior were also in use. Another of Frederick's achievements was a Patent of Protection for Jews in However Frederick was killed in the Battle of the Leitha River against the Hungarians, and had no surviving children.

Thus the Babenburg dynasty became extinct in What followed was an interregnum , a period of several decades during which the status of the country was disputed, and during which Frederick II's duchy fell victim to a prolonged power play between rival forces. During this time there were multiple claimants to the title, including Vladislaus, Margrave of Moravia son of King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia.

King Wenceslaus aimed at acquiring the Duchy of Austria by arranging the marriage of Vladislaus to the last Duke's niece Gertrud , herself a potential heir and claimant.

According to the Privilegium Minus issued by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in , the Austrian lands could be bequeathed through the female line. Vladislaus received the homage of the Austrian nobility, but died shortly afterwards, on 3 January , before he could take possession of the duchy. Next came Herman of Baden in He also made claim by seeking Gertrud's hand but did not have the support of the nobility.

Herman died in , and his claim was taken up by his son Frederick , but his claim was thwarted by the Bohemian invasion of Austria. His father had attempted to invade Austria in Ottokar then proceeded to ally himself to the Babenbergs by marrying Margaret , daughter of Leopold VI and thereby a potential claimant of the throne, in He subdued the quarrelsome nobles and made himself ruler of most of the area, including Austria, Styria, and Corinthia. Ottokar was a lawmaker and builder.

Among his achievements was the founding of the Hofburg Palace in Vienna. Ottokar was in a position to establish a new empire, given the weakness of the Holy Roman Empire on the death of Frederick II — particularly after the Hohenstauffen dynasty was ended in with the death of Conrad IV and the ensuing Imperial interregnum — Thus Ottokar put himself forward as a candidate for the imperial throne, but was unsuccessful.

During the interregnum, Austria was the scene of intense persecution of heretics by the Inquisition. The first instances appear in in over forty parishes in the southern Danube region between the Salzkammergut and the Vienna Woods , and were mainly directed against the Waldensians.

Ottokar again contested the Imperial Throne in , being almost alone in this position in the electoral college. This time he refused to accept the authority of the successful candidate, Rudolf of Habsburg Emperor — Ottokar refused either to appear or to restore the duchies of Austria , Styria and Carinthia with the March of Carniola , which he had claimed through his first wife, a Babenberg heiress, and which he had seized while disputing them with another Babenberg heir, Margrave Hermann VI of Baden.

Rudolph refuted Ottokar's succession to the Babenberg patrimony, declaring that the provinces must revert to the Imperial crown due to the lack of male-line heirs a position that however conflicted with the provisions of the Austrian Privilegium Minus.

King Ottokar was placed under the imperial ban ; and in June war was declared against him, Rudolf laying siege to Vienna. Ottokar having relinquished his territories outside of the Czech lands, Rudolph re-invested him with the Kingdom of Bohemia , betrothed his youngest daughter, Judith of Habsburg , to Ottokar's son Wenceslaus II , and made a triumphal entry into Vienna.

Ottokar, however, raised questions about the execution of the treaty, made an alliance with some Piast chiefs of Poland , and procured the support of several German princes, again including Henry XIII of Lower Bavaria. To meet this coalition, Rudolph formed an alliance with King Ladislaus IV of Hungary and gave additional privileges to the Vienna citizens. On 26 August , the rival armies met at the Battle on the Marchfeld , northeast of Vienna, where Ottokar was defeated and killed.

The March of Moravia was subdued and its government entrusted to Rudolph's representatives, leaving Ottokar's widow Kunigunda of Slavonia , in control of only the province surrounding Prague, while the young Wenceslaus II was again betrothed to Judith. Rudolf was thus able to assume sole control over Austria, as Duke of Austria and Styria — which remained under Habsburg rule for over six centuries, until Thus Austria and the Empire came under a single Habsburg crown, and after a few centuries would remain so almost continuously see below till , when the empire was dissolved, obviating the frequent conflicts that had occurred previously.

Rudolf I spent several years establishing his authority in Austria, finding some difficulty in establishing his family as successors to the rule of the province. At length the hostility of the princes was overcome and he was able to bequeath Austria to his two sons. In December , at the Diet of Augsburg , Rudolph invested the duchies of Austria and Styria on his sons, Albert I — and Rudolph II the Debonair — as co-rulers "jointly and severally", and so laid the foundation of the House of Habsburg.

Rudolf continued his campaigns subduing and subjugating and adding to his domins, dying in , but leaving dynastic instability in Austria, where frequently the Duchy of Austria was shared between family members. However Rudolf was unsuccessful in ensuring the succession to the imperial throne for the Dukes of Austria and Styria. The conjoint dukedom lasted only a year until the Treaty of Rheinfelden Rheinfelder Hausordnung in established the Habsburg order of succession.

Establishing primogeniture, then eleven-year-old Duke Rudolph II had to waive all his rights to the thrones of Austria and Styria to the benefit of his elder brother Albert I. While Rudolph was supposed to be compensated, this did not happen, dying in , and his son John subsequently murdered his uncle Albert I in For a brief period, Albert I also shared the duchies with Rudolph III the Good — , and finally achieved the imperial throne in On Albert I's death, the duchy but not the empire passed to his son, Frederick the Fair — , at least not until when he became co-ruler of the empire with Louis IV.

Frederick also had to share the duchy with his brother Leopold I the Glorious — The pattern of corule persisted, since Albert had to share the role with another younger brother Otto I the Merry — , although he did attempt to unsuccessfully lay down the rules of succession in the "Albertinian House Rule" Albertinische Hausordnung.

When Otto died in , his two sons, Frederick II and Leopold II replaced him, making three simultaneous Dukes of Austria from to when both of them died in their teens without issue. In the 14th century the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria, which had remained a small territory along the Danube, and Styria, which they had acquired with Austria from Ottokar. Rudolf IV the Founder — was the first to claim the title of Archduke of Austria, through the Privilegium Maius of , which was actually a forgery and not recognized outside of Austria till However it would have placed him on a level footing with the other Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire.

Rudolph was one of the most active rulers of his time, initiating many measures and elevating the importance of the City of Vienna. At that time Vienna was ecclesiastically subordinate to the Diocese of Passau , which Rudolph subverted by founding St Stephen's Cathedral and appointing the provost as the Archchancellor of Austria.

He improved the economy and established a stable currency, the Vienna Penny Wiener Pfennig. When he died in he was without issue and the succession passed to his brothers jointly under the Rudolfinian House Rules Rudolfinische Hausordnung. Thus Austria was now a complex country in the Eastern Alps, and these lands are often referred to as the Habsburg Hereditary Lands, as well as simply Austria, since the Habsburgs also began to accumulate lands far from their Hereditary Lands.

Almost the entire 15th Century was a confusion of estate and family disputes, which considerably weakened the political and economic importance of the Habsburg lands. It was not until in the reign of Frederick V the Peaceful — that the country at least the core territories would be finally united again. Altogether this resulted in three separate jurisdictions. He was succeeded by his son Albert IV — and grandson Albert V — who regained the imperial throne for the Habsburgs and through his territorial acquisitions was set to become one of the most powerful rulers in Europe had he not died when he did, leaving only a posthumous heir, born four months later Ladislaus the Posthumous — Instead it was Ladislaus' guardian and successor, the Leopoldian Frederick V the Peaceful — who benefited.

The Albertinian line having become extinct, the title now passed back to the Leopoldians. Frederick was so aware of the potential of being the young Ladislaus' guardian that he refused to let him rule independently upon reaching majority 12 in Austria at the time [25] and had to be forced to release him by the Austrian Estates League of Mailberg Leopold III took the remaining territories, ruling till The remaining brothers then divided the territory.

Once William died in , this took formal effect with two separate ducal lines, the Elder Ernestine Line and Junior Tyrolean Line respectively.

The Ernestine line consisted of Ernest and a joint rule by two of his sons upon his death in , Albert VI the Prodigal — and Frederick V the Peaceful — They too quarreled and in turn divided what had now become both Lower and Inner Austria upon the death of Ladislaus in and extinction of the Albertinians.

Albert seized Upper Austria in , ruling from Linz , but in proceeded to besiege his elder brother in the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, seizing lower Austria too.

However, since he died childless the following year his possessions automatically reverted to his brother, and Frederick now controlled all of the Albertinian and Ernestine possessions. Frederick's political career had advanced in a major way, since he inherited the Duchy of Inner Austria in Frederick moved his court to Innsbruck but lost some of his possessions to Switzerland.

He died childless, but in , he abdicated in the face of unpopularity and Further Austria reverted to the then Archduke, Maximilian I the Last Knight — , Frederick V's son who now effectively controlled all the Habsburg territory for the first time since The inquisition was also active under the Habsburgs, particularly between and when inquisitions were held in Steyr , Krems , St.

In there were some 80— Waldensians burnt in Steyr alone, now remembered in a monument. When Duke Albert V — was elected as emperor in as Albert II , as the successor to his father-in-law, Sigismund von Luxemburg — the imperial crown returned once more to the Habsburgs. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year — , from then on, every emperor was a Habsburg with only one exception: Frederick V Duke Archduke , died the Peaceful Emperor Frederick III — confirmed the Privilegium Maius of Rudolph IV in , and so Austria became an official archduchy of the Holy Roman Empire, the next step in its ascendancy within Europe, and Ladislaus the Posthumous — the first official archduke for a brief period, dying shortly after.

The document was a forgery, purportedly written by the Emperor Frederick I and "rediscovered". Frederick had a clear motive for this. He was a Habsburg, he was Duke of Inner Austria in addition to being Emperor, and, up till the previous year, had been guardian of the young Duke of Lower Austria, Ladislaus. He also stood to inherit Ladislaus's title, and did so when Ladislaus died four years later, becoming the second Archduke.

The Austrian Archdukes were now of equal status to the other Prince Electors that selected the emperors. Austrian governance was now to be based on primogeniture and indivisibility. In it was again divided into Upper and Lower Austria. The relative power of the emperor in the monarchy was not great, as many other aristocratic dynasties pursued their own political power inside and outside the monarchy.

However Frederick, although lackluster, pursued a tough and effective rule. He pursued power through dynastic alliances. The strategic importance of this alliance was that Burgundy, which lay on the western border of the empire, was demonstrating expansionist tendencies, and was at that time one of the richest and most powerful of the Western European nation states, with territories stretching from the south of France to the North Sea.

The alliance was achieved at no small cost, since France, which also claimed Burgundy, contested this acquisition, and Maximilian had to defend his new wife's territories from Louis XI , finally doing so upon Mary's death in at the Peace of Arras.

Matters with France were only concluded in at the Treaty of Senlis after Maximilian had become emperor. This and Maximilian's later dynastic alliances gave rise to the saying: Bella gerant alii, tu felix Austria nube , Nam quae Mars aliis, dat tibi regna Venus [c].

Frederick's reign was pivotal in Austrian history. He united the core lands by simply outliving the rest of his family.

From , when Albert V died and the responsibilities for both of the core territories lay with Frederick, he systematically consolidated his power base. The next year he marched on Rome as King of the Romans with his ward, Ladislaus the last Albertinian duke, and when he was crowned in Rome in he was not only the first Habsburg but also the last German king to be crowned in Rome by the Pope.

The dynasty was now en route to become a world power. The concept of pietas austriacae the divine duty to rule had originated with Rudolph I, but was reformulated by Frederick as AEIOU , Alles Erdreich ist Österreich untertan or Austriae est imperare orbi universo Austria's destiny is to rule the world , which came to symbolise Austrian power.

The Austrian-Hungarian War — resulted in the Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus setting himself up in Vienna in till his death in Frederick therefore found himself with an itinerant court, predominantly in the Upper Austrian capital of Linz.

Maximilian I shared rule with his father during the latter year of Frederick's reign, being elected King of the Romans in By acquiring the lands of the Tyrolean line of the Habsburgs in he finally reunited all the Austrian lands, divided since He also needed to deal with the Hungarian problem when Mathias I died in Maximilian reconquered the lost parts of Austria and established peace with Mathias's successor Vladislaus II at the Peace of Pressburg in However the dynastic pattern of division and unification would be one that kept repeating itself over time.

With unsettled borders Maximilian found Innsbruck in the Tyrol a safer place for a capital, between his Burgundian and Austrian lands, although he was rarely in any place for very long, being acutely aware of how his father had been repeatedly besieged in Vienna.

Maximilian raised the art of dynastic alliance to a new height and set about systematically creating a dynastic tradition, albeit through considerable revisionism. His wife Mary, was to die in , only five years after they were married. He then married Anne, Duchess of Brittany by proxy in , a move that would have brought Brittany , at that time independent, into the Habsburg fold, which was considered provocative to the French monarchy. Charles VIII of France had other ideas and annexed Brittany and married Anne, a situation complicated further by the fact that he was already betrothed to Maximilian's daughter Margaret , Duchess of Savoy.

However Tu felix Austria nube was perhaps more romantic than strictly realistic, since Maximilian was not slow to wage war when it suited his purpose. Having settled matters with France in , he was soon involved in the long Italian Wars against France — In addition to the wars against the French, there were the wars for Swiss independence.

The Swabian War of marked the last phase of this struggle against the Habsburgs. Following defeat at the Battle of Dornach in , Austria was forced to recognise Swiss independence at the Treaty of Basel in , a process that was finally formalised by the Peace of Westphalia in This was significant as the Habsburgs had originated in Switzerland , their ancestral home being Habsburg Castle.

In domestic policy, Maximilian launched a series of reforms at the Diet of Worms , at which the Imperial Chamber Court Reichskammergericht was launched as the highest court.

Another new institution of was the Reichsregiment or Imperial government, meeting at Nuremberg. This preliminary exercise in democracy failed and was dissolved in Attempts at creating a unified state were not very successful, but rather re-emerged the idea of the three divisions of Austria that existed prior to the unification of Frederick and Maximilian.

Short of funds for his various schemes he relied heavily on banking families such as the Fugger 's, and it was these bankers that bribed the prince electors to choose Maximilian's grandson Charles as his successor.

One tradition he did away with was the centuries-old custom that the Holy Roman Emperor had to be crowned by the Pope in Rome. Thus his father Frederick was the last emperor to be crowned by the Pope in Rome. Since Philip the Fair — died before his father, Maximilian, the succession passed to Philip's son, Charles I — who became the Emperor Charles V, on Maximilian's death in He reigned as emperor from to , when in poor health he abdicated, dying in Although he eventually fell short of his vision of universal monarchy, Charles I is still considered the most powerful of all the Habsburgs.

His Chancellor, Mercurino Gattinara remarked in that he was "on the path to universal monarchy Having inherited his father's possessions in , he was already a powerful ruler with extensive domains. On Maximilian's death these domains became vast. A number of challenges stood in Charles's way, and were to shape Austria's history for a long time to come.

Fighting invaders and tyrants

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