Imperial Cleaning

Universitätsbibliothek Regensburg

The evidence -the sources - for what I say have been gathered from the work of others and my own small researches.

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Hier werden die Kinder in ihrer Eigenart geliebt. Darum fühlen sie sich hier so wohl. Beim Spielen mit Kindern wie beim Schutz der Umwelt. Eine Prägung, die ein Leben lang hält. Wir wünschen einen gesegneten Start! Entsprechend breit gefächert und bunt sind ihre Angebote für Mitglieder.

Gepredigt hat Landesbischof Heinrich Bedford-Strohm. Wo hat Argula von Grumbach gelebt und gewirkt? Mit einem interaktiven Grad-Panorama wollen wir mit Ihnen die Stadtkirche und ihre Kunstschätze erkunden. Auch die Umwelt- und Klimaarbeit der bayerischen Landeskirche beteiligt sich daran. The occupation site there was described by those investigating it as being feet by feet on a North West slope near springs and a stream.

Some tile and Roman pottery was found on field surfaces there. The Queen was whipped and her two daughters were raped in an attempt to subdue her opposition to them. One of the battles is believed to have been near Haverhill and Hundon men could well have been involved as these tribes collectively covered this area. There have been no finds made of the long period following the disintegration of the Roman Empire.

The Romans departure from England was followed by the steady invasion of the region now known as East Anglia by Angles, Saxons and Frisians, mostly from Germany and then later invasions by the Danes. These were found near a skull. It has been claimed that this was a Viking burial since it was their practice to inter bodies with valuables. Whether this is so is uncertain.

One of the major reasons for the survey was for tax purposes. Who Hune was is not known. These are the two entries: Withgar held it before as a manor; 25 carucates of land and 20 acres. Then and later 54 villagers, now Always 30 smallholders; 14 slaves. Meadow, 45 acres; woodland at pigs; always 1 milLA church,? It has 2 leagues and 2 furlongs in length, and 1 league in width;15d in tax. Then 30 sheep, now SO. The Richard referred to as the land owner was one of those who took part in the Conquest and was rewarded with the gift of many estates, 95 of them in Suffolk.

One of them was Clare where he built a defensive castle and another was Hundon. A later Clare Lord founded the Augustinian Friary there. Virtually every Anglo Saxon land owner was eventually deprived of his holdings. A carucate of land was acres. There would have been wives and children who were unrecorded so the population would have been possibly about Slaves were often those who had been taken in battle or captured by raiders.

They were used largely for ploughing on the larger, Lords estates, and if they had any children then they too would become slaves. Within a years slaves became serfs with a little land and personal rights in the sight of the law. The major church referred to is All Saints Church which is the oldest listed building in Hundon and has been dated as 14 th Century. All Saints was a ministering church or Minster with its priests serving the second, smaller church at Chilbourne, now Barnardiston church.

In an oak tree from a park in Hundon was granted to the priory in Clare to warm the monks and in the late 13 C two parks are mentioned. The parks were Broxted Park to the west. Great Park in the centre and Easty Park in the east. Great Park extended for about acres down to Cock Lane and with the two smaller parks on either side measured about acres in all. All three parks, which are unique in Suffolk for being in the one parish, had lodges and in a keeper is listed as being at Great Park.

Whilst the various Lords at Clare enjoyed their leisure pursuits in a pleasant landscape they also ensured that the parks provided an income from the sale of coppicing and timber, from allowing grazing for cattle and pannage for pigs.

Large trees went to Clare for repairs to the castle and one of the parks even had a horse stud. There were also fish ponds and Easty Park had a warren in it.

Having existed for about years they were no longer treated as deer parks by when the land was used for other purposes. In the 14 th and 15 th CAN Saints Church had many repairs made to it including the main structure and tower. Added to the church were a porch with a chamber above it.

In workmen were carrying out restoration there and in the process a complete water jug was uncovered in the soil below the north aisle. This was examined and said to be a jug for domestic rather than religious use. It was dated as 14 th C and could well have been mislaid by the builders who were working on the church then and found some years later by builders doing similar work.

Records of them and their numbers have yet to be discovered. The plague was at its worst in , although it recurred in later years, and it is usually accepted that where it struck an average of a third of the population would have died. Sudbury suffered severely but Clare not so much so. The suggestion is that that house may have been that of a priest who was possibly connected with Chipley Abbey.

In Henry VIII granted the manor to Ann a of Cleves, his fourth wife, for their wedding which only lasted 6 months and then it was with his fifth wife, Katherine in In Pinhoe Hall was vested in John Coggeshall. This manor was formerly called Purowe, Gorreles or Penowe Hall.

It is likely that a building with one of these names stood inside the moat which remains to this day at Pinhoe Hall. This is probably the same man as John Coggeshall. The British Museum holds records that show extracts from the courts of Queen Elizabeth I which were held at Hundon on the 20 th February and the 21 st January Similarly there were views of frankpledge in , , and The Manor was then held by the Duchy of Lancaster.

Ann a of Cleeves. The Poor Law Act of required each parish to be responsible for its own poor and already in existence by the will of Thomas Rogeron in was his charity which left one sixth of his annual land income to be distributed in kind to the poor of Hundon. The moat has since been filled in. The crops grown were mainly barley with some wheat, rye, oats, peas, vetches and hops. During the disquiet which led to the Civil War William Dowsing, who was born in Laxfield in Suffolk , came to All Saints Church in and his Puritanical beliefs led him and others to destroy 30 pictures and take down three popish inscriptions there as well as ordering the steps to be levelled.

He did similar damage in over Suffolk churches where he smashed stained glass windows, brasses or anything that he thought had Roman Catholic overtones. In that same century on the 13 th April, , the church wardens submitted a return ordered by the Archbishop. This stated that the number of adults in Hundon receiving Communion were , and that there were no Popish Recusants or people suspected of it in the parish.

From this it appears that the population figures were much the same as seventy years previously. At this time, as well as those employed on the land, there were said to be 1 bricklayer, 3 carpen- ters, 3 tailors, 3 maltsters, 1 miller, 1 sawyer, 1 draper, 1 grocer, 1 shopkeeper, and 1 butcher. He was the Rt.

He had three sons one of whom became Admiral Edward Vernon,. Another son, the eldest, was also called James and he became another great Hundon benefactor. He acquired the manor of Hundon and some time before provided workhouses for Hundon, Wickhambrook and Stradishall. He also provided for the payment of the wages and salaries of the workhouses Masters and Dames.

A building near the church was used as a school. By this monument had been demolished due to its disintegration but a portion in the shape of a wheat sheaf is kept in the church. In the Hon. The peal took three hours and ten minutes to ring. The census shows that this was a laborious task carried out on foot by David Potter, Church Warden and Francis French, a householder, who called from door to door.

No names or addresses were then shown. The results gave totals of males and females, all aged over 20 years. No account was made of children The total of 1, adults comprised families and they lived in houses. There were 11 carpenters, 9 blacksmiths, 7 brick layers, 5 boot and shoe makers or menders, 4 shop keepers, 3 publicans or retailers of beer, 3 millers, 3 butchers, 3 wheelwrights, 3 saddlers, 2 tailors, 2 glovers, 2 maltsters, 1 cooper and 18 female servants. In there were 16 free scholars being taught by Mr.

French at the endowed school. Some of these family names are still present in the parish.. The teachers at the school were allowed to instruct other fee paying pupils. Religious nonconformity was present in Hundon occasioned by high Church practices causing a considerable number of inhabitants to secede from the Established Church well before the Chapel was built in Some attended Wickhambrook Congregational Church built in and the Presbyterian Minister from there was carrying out baptisms in Hundon.

In a barn in Hundon owned by John Thomas was licensed and Robert Bear of Pentlow similarly had both a house and then a barn, both occupied by James Golding, licensed in First built with one large room of two-storey height this was altered in to provide a gallery all round and a vestry was added. The numbers attending the school that year were 15 free boys and 15 free girls and rules were drawn up regarding their attendance and behaviour by the Vicar, R. The rules included the age of admission as being not under 7 years nor to remain at school beyond the age of 13 years.

Children were to find their own books and pay for firing in the winter half year and also pay for pens and ink if supplied. In the school was enlarged with another building behind the school and in March that year the rules were amended to allow 20 free boys and 20 free girls admission from the age of 5 years but still being required to leave at 13 years. Also there was to be an Examination of the children once a year. Natural children were still not admitted free. The early Education Acts commencing in , leading to compulsory but free education, resulted in the present school being built in with the old school being used as a Church Sunday School.

The following were declared to have been elected as the seven Councillors: Richard Brown of Pinhoe Hall; Rev. Arthur Hamp of The Vicarage; Rev. The cost of the election was Ss. Od and the Clerk was to be paid Ss. Od for lighting, warming and preparing the meeting room. Problems with drinking water and footpaths were the first two parish matters confronting the new Council.

In February occurred the disastrous fire at All Saints Church which completely destroyed all the woodwork of the structure, the pews, the floor and the roof. The six bells all fell to the ground and whilst some church records were saved those that remain are charred and stored in the Public Record Office. Water used to combat the blaze had to be taken from ponds there not being a public supply then.

The church was re-built by Messrs. The Church after the fire in By the end of the war in thirteen local servicemen had lost their lives. Mortlock, Alfred Osborne, George W. Pledger, Stoker Thomas Pledger R. In S ex-servicemen who had returned to the parish were offered a six-roomed house with? This became known as Stradishall Airfield to prevent any confusion between Hundon, Hunsdon and Hendon. Jock Whitehouse of 23 Windmill Rise, Hundon.

A well known authority on the subject I leave the telling to him. Its history is complex, for in its thirty-two years, it hosted at least thirty-eight flying units and operated thirty-five types of aircraft within Bomber, Transport, Flighter or Training Commands. RAF Stradishall, on its plateau of heavy clay opened in February as a two-squadron, heavy-bomber base in No. Although 3 Group patiently awaited the arrival of the new Vickers Wellington it flew and trained hard in its outdated aircraft.

The reality of outdated policies was tragically learned in Deceniber when Wellington squadrons, including No. Bomber Command then had to resort to night operations for which it was totally unprepared. Work continued at Stradishall to bring it up to operational readiness - a main priority being the provision of concrete runways and dispersals, experience having shown that heavy wet clay did not lend itself to operating heavy bombers! During May and June when the country prepared for possible invasion, pale blue or even pink-painted Spitfires would slip into Stradishall to top up their fuel tanks.

These were some of the first unarmed photo-rece. A less glamorous arrival were the Fairey Battles of Squadron, whose battered remnants escaped the debacle tak-. In spite of this, the squadron was put on immediate combat readiness. When the scare subsided, Squadron moved to Newton to rest and re-equip with the Wellington. The squadron made its first attack on Berlin in August but sadly also lost its first crew on operations. Four-engined Halifaxes , with their better capacity and longer range were also used as were the unique Lysanders which nipped in and out of French fields delivering and collecting agents male and female.

Another special unit which operated from Stradishall was a radio investigation Flight from No. This was the start of the new science of Electronic Counter Measures which was to play such a vital role in future night offensives. After rejecting the Lancaster and a high-altitude version of the Wellington , the team successfully installed the equipment into the new Mosquito. One man was killed, several buildings were damaged, and No. A second attack was made in December, the station escaped but two soldiers were killed when their billet in Steeplechase was hit.

The crews were often faced with appalling weather conditions over northern Europe but rarely turned back in spite of having no reliable technical help on board. The cost was high in terms of crews lost. Further operations were to all the main targets plus mine-laying sorties off the enemy coast. Six crew members were killed but ironically, this time it was the rear gunner who survived.

The rapid expansion of Bomber Command plus the high loss rate of crews, now required specialist units geared to turning out qualified heavy-bomber crews for the operational squadrons. Stradishall with its excellent facilities was selected for one such unit in 3 Group, and in October , Squadron moved to Chedburgh, a hastily built and very spartan satellite which itself reflected the need for more and more bomber airfields. Heavy Conversion Unit formed at Stradishall with 30 Stirlings and a target of 30 bomber crews per month.

However, until the HCU closed in December its target was regularly. Stradishall was back in the war. Our increasing air superiority over Europe enabled more daylight sorties to take place and Squadron flew continuously in this role making only a limited number of night raids.

However, there was still work to be done. The involvement of Bomber Command in the continuing Far Eastern conflict did not finally materialise. The final cessation of all hostilities presented a huge transport problem, especially in the Far East where there was an urgent need to replace long-serving personnel re-supply and to bring home ex-prisoners of war and the wounded.

To boost air-supply capability some squadrons quickly changed from a bomber to a transport role. After Squadron disbanded. Bomber Command returned to Stradishall in , when four squadrons arrived with white-painted Lancasters. This was a frustrating period for a much depleted Bomber Command equipped with old aircraft and suffering a desperate shortage of trained personnel. The larger Avro Lincoln, and a number of Boeing B. Its four squadrons retained their Lancasters until early when they all departed for greater things.

Conflicts, as in Korea , had illustrated the real danger, and the need to increase the number of operational jet-fighter squadrons especially for home defence was quickly recognised. Fighter Command had arrived. The instructors were of the highest quality, many were ex-WW2 fighter-pilots-some even of Battle of Britain vintage, but their experience produced the results needed and OCU enjoyed an excellent reputation. The Varsity had finished its career, the Dominies moved to Finningley and currently serve today as a navigational trainer at RAF Cranwell.

Royal Air Force Stradishall finally closed in late and could look back on thirty-two years of dedicated service. Hundon certainly had a special place as the majority of the airfield lay within our parish. They might visit St.

The existence of the airfield in Hundon was apparent to all, unlike the secrecy that surrounded the selection, training and missions of agents of the Special Operations Executive and Auxiliary Units at Bachelors Hall, Babel Green. Events there did not become known until long after the war.

We are there forever indebted to Mr. It is in his memory that I dedicate the following as very sadly Mr. Gabbitas passed away in May The British Resistance Organisation The need to organise civilian resistance to a German invasion was recognised in Great Britain as early as , and although no funds were made available a small Foreign Office sub-section began investigating guerrilla tactics and weaponry. Early recruits to the nascent British Resistance were initially selected by a Major Gubbins but progress was delayed when he was selected for other duties in Poland.

Thankfully Gubbins, now a Colonel, returned from Norway. He immediately began work on an underground army of resistance fighters. Auxiliary Units, the cover-name given to the organisation, consisted of two parts. The second was a smaller and less publicised half of Auxiliary Units comprising around men and officers of the Royal Signals and 43 women of the A.

Signals personnel were trained here in the operation and maintenance of the sets, and from Bachelors Hall three-man units were established in key positions around the coast from Scotland to Wales , manned by two wireless operators and one instrument mechanic. In and ninety three women, many of them in the A. Those who volunteered were told to report for an interview in, of all places, the public lounge on the 4 th floor of Harrods in Knightsbridge.

She was Beatrice Temple, the niece of the newly enthroned Archbishop of Canterbury. Some women heard nothing but many received formal orders from the War Office to proceed by train to Marks Tey in Essex.

There they changed to the Cambridge line, got off at Haverhill and crossed the road to the Rose and Crown public house. In the house the women were given slips of paper by a Royal Corps of Signals Officer who, with no explanation at all, asked them to read into a microphone. When the women had done this, and still no wiser, they were driven back to Haverhill and told to return to their units. Many took their secrets to the grave and only recently were survivors willing to talk.

Such security also meant that they were never officially recorded and therefore never recognised. Time immemorial has yielded so many unsung heroes. I feel very fortunate to have known, albeit briefly, Mr. Gabbitas and that our paths crossed in peacetime. His trip to Poland was to help to organise Polish and Czech resistance to a Nazi invasion and he did similar work in France and Norway before returning home and creating the Auxiliary Units here. The first part of these Units referred to by Mrs.

Their ages ranged from 17 to 70 and they were put in the Home Guard which was a cover for their training. In the event of a German invasion they were expected to use the guerrilla tactics they had been taught against the enemy. Ursula Pennell of Church Street also gives an account in this book of her role as a recruited member of the Auxiliary Units. Her function would have been to provide intelligence of the enemy should they have invaded in Norfolk.

In time they were assisted by Land Army women and Prisoners of War on local farms. Also remembered are the many service men and women who died in the parish between and on a memorial which was dedicated on the 14 th May In the airfield was closed which resulted in some RAF families leaving the parish but this coincided with the commencement of the building of new houses mostly at Farmerie Road , Galley Road and Windmill Rise.

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