Imperial Cleaning

Secret Mark

Grant then, dear friend, my request, and labor with rue henceforward in your prayers in my effort to present the Proof of the Gospel from the prophecies extant among the Hebrews from the earliest times.

Browse Articles

Destruction of the temple in A.D. 70, Luke and Acts

Then Judas Iscariot, who was one of the twelve, went to the chief priests in order to betray him to them.

And when they heard it they were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought an opportunity to betray him. Gundry , p notes that flasks were often broken over the dead and left shattered in coffins.

The writer reverses that convention to great effect here Myers , p The annointing with costly oil recalls the annointing of Aaron the high priest, whom the writer of Mark has recalled on other occasions in the Gospel.

It is like the precious oil upon the head, running down upon the beard, upon the beard of Aaron, running down on the collar of his robes!

Mark's text says that the woman "poured" the sweet ointment on Jesus's head katecheen autou tes kephales. It does not use the expected verb, myrizo , to indicate that she rubbed, daubed, or slathered him with it.

This verb will be used later in Jesus's interpretation of the pouring as anointing: Yet in fact there was a custom among the Greeks according to which a woman threw something sweet over someone else's head. Mark's text alludes to that custom with the verb katacheo. Katachysmata , literally "things dropped" means dessert food, sweet spicy treats, goodies. But the term also signifies the domestic ritual through which the senior wife would welcome a newcomer to her household. It is not necessarily supernatural, in that it contains no detailed features that would require supernatural knowledge.

However, this prediction is made in response to an event most probably created off the Elijah-Elisha cycle, the annointing of Jesus. Donahue and Harrington state "In its more familiar translation, 'the poor you will always have with you,' this is one of the most misinterpreted verses in the NT" p. According to their interpretation, the verse refers back to the instructions on how to treat the poor in Deut: Therefore I command you to be openhanded toward your brothers and toward the poor and needy in your land.

It recalls the work of playwrights poietai or that of confectioners hai demiourgoi , who at a banquet scene like Mark's are lurking just out of sight. The creation that becomes the nucleus of the gospel message is "her memory," mnemosynon autes , the memory of Jesus that is attributable to her because she designed it. Mark says that what she has created ho epoiesen aute will be discussed wherever the gospel is announced.

This women's poietic production is no less than the identification of Jesus as Christ in terms of his death. Crossan , p has noted that one could make a much better case for the woman here being the author of Mark, than for the young man in Her confession of Jesus' identity opens a frame that closes with the centurion's confession in Though her memory will last forever, her name is never given.

Wills , p points out that she is an ironic counterpart to the disciples, who do not understand as usual. It should be added that the irony is increased because we know the disciples' names, while hers is not recorded. Some exegetes, such as Helms, see this as a creation from Zech 11, but while Matthew's Judas is clearly partly related to that passage, the link is more tenuous in Mark.

Mark's account is quite simple; note that Judas is not possessed by the devil, nor does he actually ask for money. Nor are we informed how Judas knew the chief priests were seeking to do away with Jesus quietly.

Mark scholar Ted Weeden summarizes the reasons why Judas' betrayal should be considered fiction in a short essay posted to the discussion group Kata Markon. The passage is often translated with the Gospels in mind. Their end will be what their actions deserve. Note how perfectly Judas would serve as an example here. Further, when Paul discusses the the resurrection appearances to various early Christian leaders in 1 Cor. Weeden sees the election held for Judas' replacement in Acts to be a fiction, invented to counter the invention of the story that an insider betrayed Jesus into the hands of his enemies.

Note that while almost all exegetes believe that the famous passage in 1 Cor 15 where Jesus appears to the apostles is in fact genuine, some have argued that it is an interpolation and thus, this piece of evidence for Weeden's argument would fail. In fact, in addition to the arguments of Price, the fact that the passage contains a reference to the Twelve, the only one in the entire Pauline corpus, when it should say Recognizing this as an "error," numerous ancient manuscripts have been corrected by scribes from "12" to " Further, as Weeden observes, there is one Q saying, incorporated into Matthew, In that sequence David is betrayed by his right-hand man, Ahithophel.

Weeden argues that Mark modeled Judas after Ahithophel. Among the interesting parallels between the two biblical stories Spong notes are the following All of the canonical Gospel writers engage in polemics against the Jews to varying degrees. Although the majority of scholars hold that the Markan polemic against the Jews is not as strong as that of John or Matthew, certain evidence indicates that may not be the case.

Here we see Judas in some way representing Judaism, surely a strong polemic against the Jews. In the sequence that the writer builds out of the Elijah-Elisha Cycle in Mark 12 and 13, the Jewish authorities are paralleled by the Priests of Ba'al. That is a powerful polemic, which may indicate a date when Jews and Christians had greater mutual animosity, well after Against this, the writer may simply be heightening his portrayal of the evil of the Jewish ruling classes.

Jesus in Mark, while portrayed as superior to other Jewish teachers, still remains within established Jewish tradition. The Markan Jesus may have been critical of the Temple authorities, but no more so than other Jewish groups of the first century. For example, Jesus instructs his disciples not to interfere with an exorcist working in Jesus' name. Joseph of Arimathea, in the heart of Jesus' enemies on the Council, is portrayed as a righteous man looking for the Kingdom of God, who buries Jesus' body as Jewish law and custom demand.

Jesus instructs the rich man to keep the Torah commandments and love God Donahue and Harrington , p Like so much else about the Gospel of Mark, the depiction of Jews in Mark resists a simple solution. Tom Shepard points out that in contrast to Judas, for whom Jesus is worth little, not even a fixed sum of cash, the woman annoints Jesus with a valuable and costly ointment, clearly showing how highly she values Jesus.

And the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to arrest him by stealth, and kill him;. And they reproached her. And on the first day of Unleavened Bread, when they sacrificed the passover lamb, his disciples said to him, "Where will you have us go and prepare for you to eat the passover? And he will show you a large upper room furnished and ready; there prepare for us. And the disciples set out and went to the city, and found it as he had told them; and they prepared the passover.

And when it was evening he came with the twelve. And as they were at table eating, Jesus said, "Truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me, one.

They began to be sorrowful, and to say to him one after another, "Is it I? He said to them, "It is one of the twelve, one who is dipping bread into the dish with me. For the Son of man goes as it is written of him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed!

It would have been better for that man if he had not been born. And as they were eating, he took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to them, and said, "Take; this is my body. And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, and they all drank of it. And he said to them, "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many. Truly, I say to you, I shall not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.

For the first time the writer shows concern with chronology. The author here has confused his Jewish customs. The Passover Meal was prepared on the day of rest prior to Passover, not during the day of Passover which began in the evening, recall.

Thus the meal served in v cannot be a Passover meal Ludemann , p This chronology is thus a creation of the writer's confused understanding of Jewish practices. And he sent two of his disciples, and said to them, "Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar of water will meet you; follow him,. These verses are a doublet of As Steve Carr observes, the writer of Mark states that the disciples were to be met by a man carrying a pitcher of water.

And as they were at table eating, Jesus said, "Truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me, one who is eating with me. Usually see as a reference to Psalm Even my close friend, whom I trusted, he who shared my bread, has lifted up his heel against me. Price , p points out that the reference to the Twelve in this verse is missing from Matthew and Luke and may be from the hand of a later redactor.

This is significant because this is the only time in the Gospel of Mark in which the term "the Twelve" is found on Jesus' lips. All other instances occur in verses created by the writer of Mark. Jesus does not mention Judas by name. Nor is his departure indicated. The one exception identified was the curse on the betrayer. This, however, the Seminar saw as a proverb likely to suit any number of contexts. The whole idea of a ritual Last Supper is in essence a supernatural prediction of Jesus' own death, and is not likely to be historical.

The similar passage in 1 Cor He endorses the latter and implicitly rejects the former" Akenson , p Mack notes that communal meals with sacred overtones were common in the Hellenistic world.

At the beginning of the meal was one such appropriate moment. Another was when a round of wine was poured and toasts were to be made. It was then that a small libation to the god was in order and some form of invocation could be uttered" p The evidence for a precursor is the account of the Lord's Supper in 1 Cor Mark's use of this cultic tradition is positive proof of his acquaintance with Hellenistic Christianity.

Almost a direct cite of Exodus Moses then took the blood, sprinkled it on the people and said, "This is the blood of the covenant that the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words. Zechariah figures prominently in the scenes before and after the Garden of Gethsemane.

Here the verse may also reflect Zech 9: As for you, because of the blood of my covenant with you , I will free your prisoners from the waterless pit. Aside from a remark about "ransom for many" there is little explanation in Mark about why Jesus had to die. To understand these cryptic comments requires an interpretive scheme that does not exist in Mark.

Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of my enemies; thou anointest my head with oil, my cup overflows. Doherty , p identifies this as coming from Isaiah The Sovereign LORD will wipe away the tears from all faces; he will remove the disgrace of his people from all the earth.

The LORD has spoken. And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. But after I am raised up, I will go before you to Galilee. And Jesus said to him, "Truly, I say to you, this very night, before the cock crows twice, you will deny me three times.

But he said vehemently, "If I must die with you, I will not deny you. Most scholars start the famous Passion Narrative with this pericope or the next one.

Since the early s scholarship has argued that this story was constructed on the basis of a source, since, unlike the previous portions of the gospel, it is composed of continuous narrative, rather than pericopes. As redaction-criticism and narrative criticism rose to prominence, Mark was more and more seen as the creator of the story Theissen and Merz , p The Mount of Olives is playing its expected role based on Zech The Mount of Olives, about 5 kilometers long, lies outside of Jerusalem along the Kidron valley.

To get to there, one must pass over the brook of Kidron, which is in a ravine with steep sides. Mark has Jesus and the disciples doing this at night. It would be odd of the writer of Mark not to include an explanation if this were a typical Jewish practice, when he does so elsewhere. In any case the singing of hymns after the Passover Meal is not attested to at that time, but only in the Mishnah at least years later.

Typically the hymns sung were Psalms The writer cites Psalm twice. Mark shows no cognizance of this practice Brown , p The direct cite of Zech 13 here may recall the description of John the Baptist in Mk 1: This prediction of an appearance in Galilee is a strong indicator that the current ending of Mark is truncated.

Peter said to him, "Even though they all fall away, I will not. The author's classic theme of what clods the disciples of Jesus were has reached its height: Some manuscripts omit it. However, the idea that dawn came only after the second cockcrow is found in Greco-Roman literature Brown , p Historical Commentary Jesus makes three prophecies, one after another, all presented as supernatural foreknowledge. This pericope also has a chiastic structure. And they went to a place which was called Gethsem'ane;.

And they went to a place which was called Gethsem'ane; and he said to his disciples, "Sit here, while I pray. And he took with him Peter and James and John, and began to be greatly distressed and troubled.

And he said to them, "My soul is very sorrowful, even to death; remain here, and watch. And going a little farther, he fell on the ground and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him. And he said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to thee; remove this cup from me; yet not what I will, but what thou wilt.

And he came and found them sleeping, and he said to Peter,. Could you not watch one hour? Watch and pray that you may not enter into temptation; the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.

And again he went away and prayed, saying the same words. And again he came and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy; and they did not know what to answer him. And he came the third time, and said to them, "Are you still sleeping and taking your rest?

It is enough; the hour has come; the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Rise, let us be going; see, my betrayer is at hand. Raymond Brown , p shows how this passage is actually a set of doublets: Note that the writer does not specify where Gethsemane is; its location on the Mount of Olives is a deduction made by later readers. Very close to the Septuagint version of Jonah 4: Various Psalms, including Ps In the context of Judas' betrayal, one might also note Sirach Is it not a sorrow unto death when your bosom companion becomes your enemy?

Mary Ann Tolbert writes: Interior monologue and stream of consciousness are commonly found combined in extended format in modern narrative, and thus we may not recognize the important but sparing use of interior monologue in acient writings.

Its earliest appearance can be found in Homer, but Apollonus Rhodius, Virgil, Ovid, and Xenophon of Ephesus also employed and developed the device. Is the writer of Mark using the term "hour" in the eschatological context of There are no statements in Mark in which Jesus refers to God as "my father.

The Gospel does not provide witnesses to this scene, so the words here must be from the writer of Mark. Brown , based on the work of earlier scholars, notes both an OT and a Near Eastern tradition of the wrath of gods either drunk or served in a cup to be drunk. The term "cup of death" is also found in some Aramaic targums Brown , p Socrates was another tekton and teacher of wisdom who also died from a poisoned cup he drank because he had to.

The term has Jewish precedents. There is literal witness to this form of address, 'Father', in a rabbinic writing that also is related to the ancient Hasidic circles S. And he came and found them sleeping, and he said to Peter, "Simon, are you asleep? Restore to me the joy of your salvation and grant me a willing spirit, to sustain me. And strikingly they appear in Ps. Fourth, these three terms or concepts appear nowhere else in close proximity to each other in the NT except in Mt.

So the evidence is quite convincing that Mark has drawn upon the LXX: The opening clause is obscure: The verbs "sleep" and "rest" can be read several ways, as a plain statement of observation "You are still sleeping"; or as a question "Are you? Many scholars go with the second, for Luke, who copied Mark, has Why do you sleep? Historical Commentary The Elijah-Elisha Cycle forms the skeleton of the narrative Helms , p while the Psalms supply the dialogue: For he has not despised or disdained the suffering of the afflicted one; he has not hidden his face from him but has listened to his cry for help.

I have been wearied with my calling, Burnt hath been my throat, Consumed have been mine eyes, waiting for my God. And they went to a place which was called Gethsem'ane. And immediately, while he was still speaking, Judas came, one of the twelve, and with him a crowd with swords and clubs, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders.

Now the betrayer had given them a sign, saying, "The one I shall kiss is the man; seize him and lead him away under guard. And when he came, he went up to him at once, and said, "Master!

And they laid hands on him and seized him. But one of those who stood by drew. And Jesus said to them, "Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs to capture me? Day after day I was with you in the temple teaching, and you did not seize me.

But let the scriptures be fulfilled. And they all forsook him, and fled. And a young man followed him, with nothing but a linen cloth about his body; and they seized him, Having moved the plot, Judas disappears here. The kiss, which is historically implausible why would they need someone to identify Jesus, who was teaching publicly in the Temple?

Wounds from a friend can be trusted, but an enemy multiplies kisses. Brown , p notes that the Greek makes clear the crowd is a delegation from the authorities, not a rabble. Why does the writer of Mark repeat the information that Judas was "one of the Twelve? Brown argued that the author included that because it was part of his source. Perhaps, however, the writer is simply emphasizing the disciples' betrayal of Jesus. Tate points out that after having refused to arrest Jesus out of fear of the crowd, the leadership then arrests Jesus in front of a crowd of people.

There are numerous interpretations of this kiss. At the other extreme, the warmth of the kiss is interpreted as Judas embracing Jesus so he couldn't escape see discussion in Brown , p Brown , after reviewing some of the evidence for kisses as greetings in Jewish and Greco-Roman culture, remarks: But one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the slave of the high priest and cut off his ear. Abbott argued that there was a line missing here, in which Jesus says something like "put it back in its place.

As it is, the transition from v47 to v48 is extremely abrupt and the situation in which violence has broken out is left unresolved. The existence of this line is supported by the fact it completes the parallel with the OT.

The existence of the Lukan error in reading the ear here instead of the sword may constitute a weak argument for Q. If Luke had Matthew in front of him with the correct reading of this line, why did he adopt the wrong one? The reality is that the Greek word used by the author of Mark is only used to identify bystanders Donahue and Harrington , p It is not clear whether weapons would have been necessary in the Jerusalem environs.

The author does not name the "bystander" with a sword as a disciple, so the attack on the chief priest's party need not have had anything to do with Jesus.

Some scholars interpret this as a reference to Judas, who made himself a slave of the high priest. Although some exegetes have seized upon the word "robber" here which might also mean "insurrectionist" to say that Jesus was arrested as a political revolutionary, Paula Fredriksen , p pointed that if Jesus had been arrested for political reasons, he would have been taken straight to Pilate. There would have been no trial before the Sanhedrin, and no need of one. However, the cogency of Fredriksen's argument hinges on whether the reader accepts that the Sanhedrin Trial is historical.

If the writer invented it, then her argument is null. Some exegetes have argued that that this implies a much longer period of teaching than is present in Mark's gospel, leading to the conclusion that John's chronology is superior. But the Greek could simply mean "by day" as opposed to "by night' Donahue and Harrington , p Emerson B Powery observes: Nor does the wider literary context provide any specific scriptural passages, although some scholars usually suggest possible allusions.

As Brown , p , notes, the fact that Matthew and Luke both eliminated the reference to nudity while generations of scribes edited it is evidence that it was seen as scandalous in antiquity. See the Excursus at the end of this chapter for more discussion. Jesus leaves 8 disciples behind and takes two with him a little way, and then leaves them. David leaves his retainers behind and sends three of his men back to Jerusalem.

Someone cuts off the servant of the High Priest's ear. Abishai asks David's permission to behead Shimei, who has mocked David, but David refuses. And a young man followed him, with nothing but a linen cloth about his body;.

And they led Jesus to the high priest; and all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes were assembled. And Peter had followed him at a distance, right into the courtyard of the high priest; and he was sitting with the guards, and warming himself at the fire.

Now the chief priests and the whole council sought testimony against Jesus to put him to death; but they found none. For many bore false witness against him, and their witness did not agree. And some stood up and bore false witness against him, saying, Yet not even so did their testimony agree. And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer to make?

What is it that these men testify against you? But he was silent and made no answer. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? And Jesus said, "I am; and you will see the Son of man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven. And the high priest tore his garments, and said, "Why do we still need witnesses?

You have heard his blasphemy. What is your decision? And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to strike him, saying to him, "Prophesy!

Scholars have identified some of the problematical historical issues with the Sanhedrin Trial as 1 capital trials can only take place in daylight; 2 , court proceedings may not take place on the sabbath, on festivals, and the corresponding days of rest; 3 A death sentence may not be passed on the first day of a trial, but can only in a new session on the following day; 4 Blasphemy consists solely of speaking the name of YHWH, which Jesus does not do in Mark; and, 5 the regular place of assembly is a hall within the Temple the writer is usually seen to imply that the Sanhedrin met at the house of the High Priest.

The Temple gates are closed at night. Other scholars take issue with all these points, however. Mahlon Smith points out additional problems. The Pharisees, depicted throughout the gospel as the enemies of Jesus, have disappeared from the narrative. The Herodians, also mentioned as his enemies, vanish like fog on a summer morn. The writer has permitted the scribes to be in on the kill, however. Due to the various contradictions between the behavior of individuals as depicted in the narrative, and behavior proscribed on feast days, Theissen and Merz , p suggest that the chronology is wrong and Jesus was executed prior to Passover.

Doherty , p points out that the Septuagint version of Psalm 22, from which so much of the imagery of the Passion Narrative is drawn, actually reads "Synagogues of the wicked have circled me round. Dogs have surrounded me; a band of evil men has encircled me, they have pierced my hands and my feet. Thus, on the basis of good external evidence and strong internal considerations it appears that the earliest ascertainable form of the Gospel of Mark ended with At the same time, however out of deference to the evident antiquity of the longer ending and its importance in the textual tradition of the Gospel, the Committee decided to include verses as part of the text, but to enclose them within double square brackets to indicate that they are the work of an author other than the evangelist.

Clarendon Press, , pp. On the one hand, as far as certain readings involve sensitive points of doctrine, the Fathers customarily alleged that heretics had tampered with the accuracy of the text. On the other hand, however, the question of the canonicity of a document apparently did not arise in connection with discussion of such variant readings, even though they might involve quite considerable sections of text.

Today we know that the last twelve verses of the Gospel according to Mark xvi. Eusebius and Jerome, well aware of such variation in the witnesses, discussed which form of text was to be preferred.

It is noteworthy, however, that neither Father suggested that one form was canonical and the other was not. Furthermore, the perception that the canon was basically closed did not lead to a slavish fixing of the text of the canonical books.

Thus, the category of 'canonical' appears to have been broad enough to include all variant readings as well as variant renderings in early versions that emerged during the course of the transmission of the New Testament documents while apostolic tradition was still a living entity, with an intermingling of written and oral forms of that tradition.

Already in the second century, for example, the so-called long ending of Mark was known to Justin Martyr and to Tatian, who incorporated it into his Diatesseron. There seems to be good reason, therefore, to conclude that, though external and internal evidence is conclusive against the authenticity of the last twelve verses as coming from the same pen as the rest of the Gospel, the passage ought to be accepted as part of the canonical text of Mark.

George Bell and Sons, , volume 2, pp. Mark vindicated against recent objectors and established' Oxford and London, , has thrown a stream of light upon the controversy, nor does the joyous tone of his book miscome one who is conscious of having triumphantly maintained a cause which is very precious to him.

We may fairly say that his conclusions have in no essential point been shaken by the elaborate and very able counter-plea of Dr. This whole paragraph is set apart by itself in the critical editions of Tischendorf and Tregelles. Besides this, it is placed within double brackets by Westcott and Hort, and followed by the wretched supplement derived from Cod.

B at the end of every other book of Scripture. No such peculiarity attaches to Cod. The testimony of L, that close companion of B, is very suggestive. Burgon's facsimile , facing his page Besides these, the twelve verses are omitted in none but some old Armenian codices 4 and two of the Ethiopic, k of the Old Latin, and an Arabic Lectionary [ix] No. Not unlike is the marginal note in Hunt.

Of cursive Greek manuscripts , , which Birch had hastily reported as marking the passage with an asterisk, each contains the marginal annotation given below, which claims the passage as genuine, with no asterisk at all, like 36 and others with an ordinary mark of reference from the text to the note, where of course it is repeated. Matthew's Gospel see p. It would be no marvel if Eusebius, the author of this harmonizing system, had consistently acted upon his own rash opinion respecting the paragraph, an opinion which we shall have to notice presently, and such action on his part would have added nothing to the strength of the adverse case.

But it does not seem that he really did so. These numerals appear in most manuscripts, and in all parts of them, with a good deal of variation which we can easily account for. In the present instance they are annexed to ver. In their respective margins the annotated codices 12 of Scholz , 24, 36, 37, 40, 41, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , twenty-four in all , present in substance 7 the same weighty testimony in favour of the passage: Now this is none other than an extract from Victor of Antioch's [v] commentary on St.

Mark, which they all annex in full to the sacred text, and which is expressly assigned to that Father in Codd. Yet these very twenty-four manuscripts have been cited by critical editors as adverse to the authenticity of a paragraph which their scribes never dreamt of calling into question, but had simply copied Victor's decided judgement in its favour His appeal to the famous Palestine codices which had belonged to Origen and Pamphilus see p.

All other codices, e. ACD which is defective from ver. Mark , the Harkleian text, the Sahidic only ver. Mary Magdalene's Day, July 22 p.

The earliest objector to vers. Jerome's recklessness in statement as been already noticed Vol. With regard to the argument against these twelve verses arising from their alleged difference in style from the rest of the Gospel, I must say that the same process might be applied — and has been applied — to prove that St.

Paul was not the writer of the Pastoral Epistles to say nothing of that to the Hebrews , St. John of the Apocalypse, Isaiah and Zechariah of portions of those prophecies that bear their names. Every one used to literary composition may detect, if he will, such minute variations as have been made so much of in this case, 13 either in his own writings, or in those of the authors he is most familiar with.

Persons who, like Eusebius, devoted themselves to the pious task of constructing harmonies of the Gospels, would soon perceive the difficulty of adjusting the events recorded in vers. Alford regards this inconsistency more apparent than real, we believe as 'a valuable testimony to the antiquity of the fragment' N. The difficulty was both felt and avowed by Eusebius, and was recited after him by Severus of Antioch or whoever wrote the scholion attributed to him.

Yet in the balance of probabilities, can anything be more unlikely than that St. Mark broke off so abruptly as this hypothesis would imply, while no ancient writer has noticed or seemed conscious of any such abruptness? We emphatically deny that such wild surmises 15 are called for by the state of the evidence in this case.

Let us accord to these the weight which is their due: So powerfully is it vouched for, that many of those who are reluctant to recognize St.

Mark as its author, are content to regard it notwithstanding as an integral portion of the inspired record originally delivered to the Church.

I have ventured but slowly to vouch for Tischendorf's notion, that six leaves of Cod. On mere identity of handwriting and the peculiar shape of certain letters who shall insist? Yet there are parts of the case which I know not how to answer, and which have persuaded even Dr.

Having now arrived at this conclusion our inference is simple and direct, that at least in these leaves, Codd. B, are obviously in no wise parallel in regard to their blank columns. Of which supplement Dr. Hort says unexpectedly enough, 'In style it is unlike the ordinary narratives of the Evangelists, but comparable to the four introductory verses of St.

Luke's Gospel' Introduction, p. We ought to add that some Armenian codices which contain the paragraph have the subscription 'Gospel after Mark' at the end of verse 8 as well as of verse 20, as though their scribes, like Cod. L's, knew of a double ending to the Gospel. Burgon Guardian , July 12, speaks of seven manuscripts Codd. This would be more significant if a space were left, as is not stated, at the foot of the preceding page.

The grievous misstatements of preceding critics from Wetstein and Scholz down to Tischendorf, have been corrected throughout by means of Burgon's laborious researches Burgon, pp. The minute variations between these several codices are given by Burgon Appendix E, pp. Taylor, Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, in The Expositor for July , quotes more evidence from Justin Martyr — hinting that some also remains behind — proving that that Father was familiar with these verses.

Also he cites several passages from the Epistle of Barnabas in which traces of them occur, and from the Quartodeciman controversy, and from Clement of Rome. The value of the evidence which Dr. Taylor's acute vision has discovered consists chiefly in its cumulative force.

The Synoptic Gospel Parallels with John's Gospel

Share this:

Leave a Reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.