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They are listed clockwise, starting in the north:. The unincorporated area Mark, the municipalities Möhrendorf, Bubenreuth, Marloffstein, Spardorf and Buckenhof and the forest area Buckenhofer Forst all belonging to the district of Erlangen-Höchstadt , the independent cities of Nuremberg and Fürth, the municipality Obermichelbach district of Fürth , the city of Herzogenaurach and the municipality Hessdorf both in the district of Erlangen-Höchstadt.
Erlangen officially consists of nine districts and 40 statistical districts, 39 of which are inhabited. The districts and statistical districts are partly formerly independent municipalities,   but also include newer settlements which names have also been coined as district names.
The traditional and subjectively perceived boundaries of neighborhoods often deviate from the official ones. Erlangen is divided into the following Gemarkungen:. Some still common names of historical districts were not taken into account with the official designations.
Erlangen is located in a transition zone from maritime to continental climate: The castle mountain in particular protects the area of the core city from cold polar air. In contrast, the Regnitzgrund is the cause of frequent fog. In the prehistory of Bavaria, the Regnitz valley already played an important role as a passageway from north to south. In Spardorf a blade scraper was found in loess deposits, which could be attributed to the Gravettians , which places it at an age of about 25, years.
The altar is unique in this form and consists of a square stone setting with four upright, figural pillars at the corners and in the middle. The reconstruction of the site can be visited in the area, the middle guard is exhibited in the Erlangen city museum. Erlangen is first mentioned by name in a document from The origin of the name Erlangen is not clear.
Attempts of local research to derive the name of alder tree species and anger meadow ground , do not meet toponymical standards. Martin in Forchheim with accessories to the diocese of Würzburg.
At that time the Bavarian Nordgau extended to the Regnitz in the west and to the Schwabach in the north. Villa Erlangon must therefore have been located outside of these borders and thus not in the area of today's Erlangen Altstadt. However, as the name Erlangen is unique to today's town in Germany, the certificate could have only referred to it. The document also provides an additional piece of evidence: In , Henry II bestowed further areas west of the Regnitz, including one mile from the Schwabach estuary to the east, one mile from this mouth upstream and downstream.
These two squares are described in the document only by their lengths and the two river names. No reference to a specific place is given. They are also unrelated to the accessories of St. Martin, which included the villa erlangon, another reason why it must have been physically separated from the area of the two miles. Size and extent of the two squares correspong approximately to the area requirement of a village at the time, which supports the assumption that at the time of certification a settlement was under construction, which should be legitimized by this donation and later, as in similar cases, has adopted th name of the original settlement.
Only 15 years later, in , Henry II confirmed an exchange agreement, through which St. Martin and its accessories including Erlangen were given to the newly founded Bishopric of Bamberg, where it remained until During these centuries, the place name appears only sporadically. Local researchers therefore concluded that Erlangen must have already gained so much in extent that in , Henry IV took his residence there with many princes and bishops  and was therefore the seat of a King's Court.
Other evidence of this estate is also missing. Otherwise, Erlangen was usually only mentioned if the bishop pledged it due to lack of money. How exactly the village developed is unknown. Only the designation "grozzenerlang" in a bishop's urbarium from may be an indication that the episcopal village had outstripped the original villa erlangon. Under the crown of Bohemia, the village developed rapidly. In the emperor spent three days in Erlangen and gave the "citizen and people of Erlangen" grazing rights in the imperial forest.
The money should instead be used to "improve" the village. Probably soon after , the new ruler of the administration of the acquired property west of the town built the Veste Erlangen , on which a bailiff resided. King Wenceslaus built a mint and oficially granted township to Erlangen in He also gave the usual town privileges: Collection of tolls, construction of a department store with bread and meat bank and the construction of a defensive wall.
Two years later, in , the prince-electors unelected. He sold his Frankish possessions, including Erlangen, to his brother-in-law, the Nuremberg burgrave Johann III due to lack of funds in During the process of division of the burggrave property in Franconia, Erlangen was added to the Upper Principality, the future Principality of Bayreuth.
The Erlangen coining facility ceased its operation because the Münzmeister was executed for counterfeiting in Nuremberg. During the Hussite Wars the town was completely destroyed for the first time in However, as the army of Albrecht could not completely enclose the city, Nuremberg troops broke out again and devastated the Margravial towns and villages.
As reported by a Nuremberg chronicler, they "burnt the market at most in Erlangen and brought a huge robbery". Erlangen was raided and plundered again, this time by Bavarian troops. In the following years the town recovered again. Erlangen was spared from the Peasants' War in and the introduction of the Reformation in was peaceful. It was even considered to completely abandon the town.
Because Emperor Charles V imposed the imperial ban on Albrecht, the Nurembergers incorporated Erlangen into their own territory. Albrecht died in January His successor, George Frederick , requested that the imperial sequestation over the Principality of Kulmbach be reversed and was able to take back the government one month later.
Under his rule, the town recovered from the was damage and remained unharmed until well into the Thirty Years' War. During the four year Napoleonic occupation, Erlangen was the capital of the so-called "Low County" Unterland of the principality, encompassing the area until Neustadt an der Aisch and separated from the "High County" Oberland by a land corridor.
In it became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria , together with the rest of former Brandenburg-Bayreuth. While it was still part of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, the first French Huguenot refugees arrived in Erlangen in In , the old town just below the site of the annual Bergkirchweih was almost completely destroyed by a fire, but soon rebuilt.
In , the old and new towns were merged into one. In , Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth , founded a university for his royal seat of Bayreuth, but due to the rebelliousness of the local students, the university was transferred to Erlangen.