Imperial Cleaning

Hotel Tannenhof in Haiger

The ice across much of Russia preserved remains of Pleistocene mammals such as this mammoth from near Moscow whose mounted bones are diplayed in the entrance hall to the Orlov Museum of Paleontology. Cholera in Britain and Ireland.


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I use an Ipad Pro, love the split screen feature. Most other Bible study programs don't have this feature. I still have a lot of respect for the KJV and use it as well. But the NKJV will grow on you as you compare the two and gain confidence and trust in the updated version. Makes studying the Bible easier in modern English.

It is very user friendly, with an excellent and extensive pool of resources from which to choose. Customer service is quite efficient, responding quickly to an inquiry. I have been pleasantly surprised at the ease in adding resources. I highly recommend this "ministry" and am grateful to God for presenting it to me. I updated my e-sword and downloaded my purchase and I'm greatly pleased with what I now have before me.

To all of those behind the scenes at e-sword, Thank you so very much for what you do for the kingdom of God! Indispensable for my Bible Study. Eventually, the software changed to include a library of books, and it was no longer user friendly.

The purchase went smoothly and so did the install. The NKJV is a trusted version. I like that all nouns and pro-nouns related to the Godhead are in upper-case letters to make it clear who is being referred to.

In the past two years, He has brought me into Prison ministry. I am able to share my Lord over the Word through a Monday night Bible Study and bi-monthly in seminars that teach the Word, in truth and in application. The electronic NKJV has made preparation for these opportunities so much simpler that I am able to spend more time digging deeper into the Word, with the men, than in laboring to republish verses from the NKJV.

Thank you so much for having this resource available, and at such a reasonable price. Everything you need to study God's Word. I had the feeling that you came up with something new just to fill up your time. The last version, however, which I downloaded just a few weeks ago, is very good and I like it. I will recommend it to anyone. I really like it and would recommend it to anyone. So, of course, I had to have it accessible on my new laptop with e-Sword.

There was a 30 day trial period which i was happy about. I found myself using my e-sword instead so I got a refund for the program.

I am a simple man and I love how simple e-sword is. God bless you and thank you for providing it. Then I investigate other translations to flesh out the original meaning of the text. Easy to read and the understanding come much easier. Very happy with it. I only read NKJV for the past 25 years.

Great to have it for computers as well. E-Sword makes adding new resources so easy that I have to discipline myself, or the e-Sword GUI might become too bloated. Thanks, Rick Meyers, for your ceaseless hard work that keeps e-Sword the number one bible study software at any price.

It makes the word of God more understandable for the average reader. I love the way it highlights in bold Key scriptures in the chapters. I have become very dependant on e-Sword in my daily reading of the Word and also my in-depth studies.

The original Hebrew and Greek dictionary meanings have opened up a whole new depth of meaning to GOD's promises and His nature and motive. I love the ease of access to the different Bibles and the parallel views that help me get a broader insight to each verse. I also use the journal to prepare my sermons. It is so easy to paste relevant Bible verses into the notes, highlight and underline them for future reference. Thank you very much for this priceless tool.

Adding to an already impressive program! This solid translation is a great reading version and study reference with other good translations. Reviewed by Steve Griffin, Sulphur, La. My first bible was the King James Version, from which I memorized quite a few verses over the first 10 years.

However, I became tired of the thees and thous and bought a RSV. Since I decided to use a variation of bibles, with a Strong's Concordance, to teach a bible study as thoroughly as possible. The New King James Version, when compared to the several I have used, is a significant improvement, is written in plain English, and is so much more parallel to the other versions.

I like the fact that E-Sword for Mac was made available and that this app opens up wide the doors of the universe to Knowing, Loving, and Serving God, without being confused by language difficulties. Way to go E-Sword I had a computer infection and lost all my files.

Process of purchasing and downloading was easy and fast. The price was right and I'm glad I finally did. Praise and glory to God! Works as if designed for e-Sword. I use it when I am preaching and studying. I think that it is the best and most accurate translation. Perfectly combines the beauty and the integrity of the KJV with the modernization needed to understand and follow what is being said.

There is only one thing that I would fix. This would streamline the study using e-sword instead of going from the NKJV to get the wording to the KJV to get the keyed number or doing a parallel view. Other than that it is Fantastic! From purchase to installation. Helps in study to view different translations. I recommend it to you as easier to understand in some parts than the KJV. The revisers have taken time to search out the meanings of some words which can be difficult to understand unless you have helps available to do word searches and original meanings.

Read it, memorize it and God bless. These footnotes are an invaluable resource in letting us students know why a particular passage was translated the way it was.

Otherwise, I would have gladly given this review 5 stars. This translation I relied on for my personal studies or bring this to church bible study groups. Really appreciated NKJV since I purchased a book in late 's and still have it handy with me--it still stay in good shape with all yellow highlights and markings.

I decide to add module to my e-sword and still love it. You have my generous recommendation when you ask me about NKJV. May God smile upon you in Christ. Great resource and glad to see a bundle with the NKJV to help save money. Thank you for your ministry. I am part of a congregation that has a higher than the average proportion of retired folk as this is the population in this seaside community.

It is easy to cut and paste into my word document. Being in seminary it is necessary to have multiple translations at your fingertips in a format that can be consulted quickly and appropriately. The team at eStudy and eSword always provide excellent tools - thank you very much and may the Lord bless you in His work. Great to have the NKJV back!

It is more precious than silver or gold! The study of the Scriptures in the different translations adds to the thrill of finding new treasures each day. I do not preach regularly but when I prepare for a sermon E-Sword is one tool I use extensively. Thank you for opportunity!

Reviewed by Frederick B. Great for study and reference. The NKJV is just right for me. When I read it I get it. I really like eSword because of all the helps that come with it and the multitude of add-ons.

This is my favorite version of the Bible. I wish I had added it sooner. I use it daily on my iPhone. It is easy to flip from one verse to another quickly when following a sermon. So glad it is available. Great study version for my PC. I use e-sword to study and give my best for these old foke, who I am honored to encourage and even lead to heaven in their last days. I am a very detailed Bible schooler who uses and researches many different versions of the Bible. I especially like the features which allow me to compare the different versions side by side.

It is so true to the original King James, but with much easier language. I enjoy looking through several different versions of the Bible when studying. Reviewed by Rod Perkins, Ft. I had not previously read it as I expected all the Thee's and Thou's as in the original. I am finding it a refreshing change and so much more readable and understandable version than I had thought.

A teachers usefull tool,plain english. The references are easy to follow and makes it easy for me, as a Sunday School teacher, find the best scriptures to make my point in class. Many of the members of our church use the New King James version including my pastor. I use it often. I find the variation from the regular KJV to be minimal and not affecting doctrine so far. I find it very useful in my personal study and message preparation. NKJV is one of my preferred texts.

I use the various versions as "commentaries" on each other, and it's very easy to do in e-Sword! I was able to have it running in just a few minutes and I have been using it on a daily basis.

The cost is minor when I see it as an investment in eternity. Our Lord said, "My words are spirit and they are life. It is really a lot of help for someone like me who serve the Lord. It provides a modern English version without compromising on the reliability of translation or depending upon a departure from the Received Text.

The new King James version helps me make that connection and I have found it very useful in my works so far. I use mostly the electronic version so I cannot comment on the printing but generally I find it a very useful Bible version. I downloaded the bible with no problem at all. It was immediate and simple to do. I use this bible for teaching an adult Sunday School class. I can select the scriptures I want for the class, print them all off and give them to the class as handouts.

Saves time searching through the bible. Students take the papers home with them for further study or information. Wonderful tool, wonderful service. I went thru several translations and discovered that not only had I not found the translation I was searching for, but that I was forgetting many familiar references.

When I did find one, I began using it in my quiet time. My fear had been that it had become too modern. What a delight to discover that is still has the flow and poetry of the original KJV. I am delighted to find that there are few verses that have changed so much that I have to learn them all over and that it is so easy to make my notes in the editor. Very soon I will be comfortable to drop the KJV from my parallel Bible completely while still having it available for Strong's numbers in my research work.

I feel at home again as I study the Word. May God continue to bless you richly,. I'm finding it a good addition to my resources, and prefer it to the KJV for obvious reasons.

I'm finding that the translation takes some liberties in adding words not included in the original Greek - my preference is still the NASB for accuracy. I like the tool e-Sword version a lot; it really facilitates quick comparison study. I think it's an excellent value and would recommend it to friends. Personally I miss the Thees and Thous, but that is me. Changing from the old English into modern day, how can you tell who is being addressed?

Is the pronoun singular or plural? This version for the eSword allows me to easily do so. What I really like about it is that it allows me run the NKJV in parallel mode alongside the Greek with Strong's reference which I have enhanced by downloading for a small fee AMg's complete word study plus any other translation that my friends and colleagues use.

I could only give this version four stars because it lacks a Strong's concordance of its own so I also have to run the KJV with Strong's concordance in parallel mode when doing my word studies. But for what this version does do - it does it very well. I do not find it buggy whatsoever. I use E-Sword on an almost daily basis, and have found it to be a magnificent resource. It really helps my Bible study by having so many translations available, and I love being able to find just the right way of using a verse in a particular way.

Thank you for this invaluable tool. I still love the NKJV the most I love E-Sword, and I use it all the time. Next to the KJV it is still the one I love the most. It is faithful to the original languages, and most importantly to me, like the KJV, it is translated from the best manuscripts. I have been using it for years now. I thank God for your ministry.

You have really helped me in studying in depth and I am truly grateful. There is so much available on it that I don't think I will ever get to use all the resources that you have for FREE and offer. I tell everyone about you when I can. Again, thank you so much for your ministry. A lot of modern translations have the text in a paragraph form but the NKJV does not which makes finding a particular verse easier at times.

But I would like to say a few words about E-Sword in general. I use E-Sword to help prepare lessons and to locate verses all the time. I find E-Sword to be one of the best tools I have when it comes to finding verses and preparing lessons. They are thus due to Homo heidelbergensis according to the age of the eponymous Mauer site in Germany. Dating the earliest human occupation of Western Europe: New evidence from the fluvial terrace system of the Somme basin Northern France by Pierre Antoine , Emmanuelle Stoetzel and others Neanderthal developed in Europe and homo erectus in Africa.

The picture shows a racial depiction of the separation in a s Children's Encyclopedia. The separation of "ape men" from "true men" is shown as equivalent to, or greater than, that separating humans from gorillas and chimpanzees.

True men then divide into two distinct lines - black negro - negroid - australoid and white european - mongoloid. This distinction is shown as equivalent to that between orang-utangs and gorillas. A group of individuals that actually or potentially interbreed in nature is considered the same species, however different appearances. See early human gene exchange. About , to , years ago Wooden spears made of spruce of from an ancient lakeshore hunting ground. Found in a coal mine in Shöningen, near Hanover, Germany in MIS 10 about , years ago Bilzingsleben site in Germany.

In the s Dietrich Mania excavated "three round ground plans of dwellings with hearths by their entrances". He "found large stones arranged in a circular manner. He thought that it probably was a base for a dwelling. However, ring-center analysis showed that the site was an open air site. Gamble proposed that humans congregated at the site around the fire ".

Stone chopping tools of small size, mainly flint. Numerous bone tools include hoes, scrapers , point and gougers. Some hoes made of antler or ivory. Some wooden artefacts preserved. In , Ireland celebrated four extinct residents: The stamps and the animals are discussed on paleophilatelie. Megaloceros , the Irish elk, represents the Quaternay in the Sydenham display.

But the Mousterian hunters had Technology moved its emphasis from fashioning cores to fashioning flakes. At the peak, Northern Hemisphere winters were generally warmer and wetter than now.

The hippopotamus was distributed as far north as the rivers Rhine and Thames. Wikipedia - and further north: Bones from a hippopotamus, and some from rhinoceros and elephant , were dug up in Derby in They are now in the Derybshire Museum's new nature gallery. A large number of sites in Britain are attributed to Marine Isotope Stage 5e, mainly on the basis of hippopotumus remains. None show signs of humans. Natural History Museum Harry William Whanslaw's picture shows "river-drift men" hunting the "straight-tusked elephant of prehistoric time".

An attempt to depict migrations from Madison Coonan's website. From the Near East, these populations spread east to South Asia by 50, years ago , and on to Australia by 40, years ago , when for the first time H. The bones were visually reassembled as a skeleton , which gave the basis for an artist's impression. See polished stone axe There seems to be more ideology than science in the distinction between "homo sapiens" and "homo neanderthalensis".

Arguably first presence of Homo sapiens in Europe. The site consists of two rock shelters. It has given its name to the Mousterian tool culture. Dated remains in Italy and Britain. Wikipedia article on dog.

Dog like skull 36, years ago , remains near humans 17, to 16, years ago. Wolf or dog drawing 19, years ago. Neanderthal 1 Femme de la race de Neanderthal. He has dated art in this group to 40, years ago leading to it being described as the world's oldest cave art - See Matthew MacEgan - Nature - National Geographic - BBC dating the region -.

Die Höhle ist im hinteren Teil verschlossen". Art News The photograph is from the website of fahrrad-tour. It shows The figure of the lion human, an ivory carving from the tusk of a mammoth displayed in the Museum of Ulm. The same page shows caves where figures have been discovered. About 35, years ago , Carleton S Coon begins his "second phase of history" "the skilled hunter and healer", when "man covers the face of the earth".

Ending "about BC with the invention of agricuture". See 50,BC and phase 3. Rutot called the new race Paleolithic and argued that it enslaved the Neandethals. About 30, years ago , modern homo sapiens entirely replaced earlier man-like forms. Weapons and tools of flint and bone survive along with female carved stone figures with exaggerated sexual features, suggesting fertility symbols and magical ceremonies.

This last level immediately succeeds the latest Mousterian horizon in the cave. Toolmaking culture most closely associated with Venus figurines. The blade is 5. It was found in a Gravettian strata at Brassempouy Right: Four views of one burin , 5.

A Pictorial Encyclopedia mentions cave painting and tools and says: Peking - Piltdown - Neanderthal - Cromagnon. Head carved from mammoth ivory showing a person with an asymmetrical face, found in Dolni Vestonice, Southern Moravia. It is a face: Everything points to the Ice Age hunter having depicted himself".

Also known as the Venus of Brassempouy. Acquisition number MAN 47 The Venus of Willendorf was found in Austria in It is thought to be a carving of a woman, without facial features, fat , with pendulous breasts and a huge, perhaps pregnant, belly. Fragment of engraved reindeer metatarsal decorated on one surface with two reindeer, one of which is now incomplete. Stored in the British Museum where the acquisition notes say "exacavated by both Christy and Lartet in ". Dieu cornu horned god or Sorcier sorcerer or chaman shaman.

In animal skins and stag antlers. Upper wall above the entrance to the 20,, year-old grand gallery. Petit Sorcier a l'Arc Musical Little sorcerer with musical bow , amongst animals in cm wide panel on right hand wall of Sanctuary. In this picture, the little sorcerer is rotated from vertical to horizontal to show it as a person disguised in animal skins stalking prey. See discussion by Simona Petru, Documenta Praehistorica 39 , "Man, animal or both - Problems in the interpretation of early symbolic behaviour".

On "the highest mountains" "shells, skeletons of fish and sea monsters" have been found, showing the sea once covered them. Animals are found "far from their native areas": Coder and Howe's The Bible, Science and Creation , page 63 says "flood geology" dates creation to about 10, years ago "and relates most of the geological strata and fossil beds to the Flood".

In Arabic, a tell is a tall hill. In Midle East Archaeology, a tell is a mound formed by the accumulated remains of ancient settlements. Mesolithic tools from Britain. Scene of hunting of deer with bows and arrows. This included "eight distinct ages comparable to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Sometimes classical antiquity is used for the period of ancient Greece and Rome. Christian antiquity refers to the early centuries of the Christian church.

Foundations of 25 buildings discovered in peat wetland by Robert Rudolf Schmidt in About 20 two-room houses with walls of split wooden posts.

A much larger central building probably used for community acrivities. Other buildings possibly for storage. A hunting community with wheat and barley fields and livestock. Small polished stone hatchets and bone tools found.

Hearths and clay ovens in the houses. Britannica "In prehistoric Europe the largest neolithic village yet known, Barkaer in Jutland, comprised 52 small, one-roomed dwellings, but 16 to 30 houses was a more normal figure; so the average local group in neolithic times would average to members". Contains pictographs of heads, feet, hands, numbers and threshing-boards. Now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Reign of Narmer in Egypt. The Narmer Palette left was discovered by James E. Quibell in in Hierakonpolis. On it, Narmer displaying the insignia of both Upper and Lower Egypt, giving rise to the theory that he unified the two kingdoms and was the founder of the first dynasty. Narmer is sometimes identified with Menes. Papyrus, depicted on the Narmer Palette , is a plant that grew in the river Nile from which a writing material, also called papyrus, was made.

A setlement from this period lay under the Ur flood deposit disovered by the archaeologist Leonard Woolley and announced in In Wooley believed the 3. Jona Lendering writes "It is likely Eridu is south of the later city of Ur.

This are "was the birthplace of cities and of civilisation about 5, years ago and home to the Sumerians and the later Babylonians ". Stuart Campbell, Manchester archeologist. The first pyramid of Egypt. Said to have been designed by Imhotep, who may be the first architect whose name we know, and who was defied 2. The picture is taken from the Wikipedia website. Clicking on it will take you to more information.

Noah took off the covering of the ark". Usher refering to Genesis 8: See "evidences of the Deluge" and flood geology. See Epic of Gilgamesh and Ur flood. Picture described as "Various animals entering the Ark built by Noah because of the great flood". Excavation of Tell Khaiber, 20 kilometres from Ur about BC "We provisionally date the site to around 2, BC, the time of the sack of the city and the fall of the last Sumerian royal dynasty.

Metres above sea-level of lowest images from succeding periods ordered by type of ship: Period four to five: Scandinavian boat drawings have been interpreted as skin boats, planked boats, dugouts and rafts.

All images with inturned prows and horizontal or slightly upturned keel extensions were 24 metes or more above sea level. Baal meant lord, master, owner or husband in Semitic languages.

It was also applied to Gods. The plural was Baalim. Baalim might own specific areas, being the Gods of specific peoples. The Jews also called God lord and believed he had a special relationship to them. However, they eventually believed in only one God monotheism who is master of all, and they believed that graven images should not be made of him.

Vase painting BC in British Museum shows 4 oarsman, but 6 oars. Suggested there were 12 men, 6 oars each side, 3 men to a bench. The Ramesseum in Thebes is the 'mortuary temple' of this Egyptian king.

The Petrie Papyri were found beneath this. In periods four and five more elaborate "depictions of humans" Ling, page A large increase in the use of iron for tools and weapons took place from the neo-Assyrian period onwards.

Jericho was in Israel. Around BC , Hiel is said to have rebuilt the walls. He laid its foundations at the cost of his firstborn son Abiram, and he set up its gates at the cost of his youngest son Segub, in accordance with the word of the LORD spoken by Joshua son of Nun" 1 Kings Bronze five - Sweden. In the same period the first Upanishads were written. It shows a six wheeled Assyrian battering ram with a metal tip. The metal tip may well have been of iron.

I received from him silver , gold , a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin , a staff for a king [and] spears. Their father was the god of war, Mars. Abandoned, they were reared by a she wolf. Romulus murdered Remus before founding Rome. The stamp shows the bronze in the Capitoline Museum.

Brandskogship - Boglösa This ship from Brandskog is the largest. Some have argued that it post-dates the Swedish bronze age Ling p. Coins developed independently in Anatolia and Greece, India and China around the 7th and 6th centuries BC, spreading rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries through Greece and Persia Ahuramazda has granted unto me this empire. Ahuramazda brought me help, until I gained this empire; by the grace of Ahuramazda do I hold this empire.

Early years of the Roman Republic Burgess and Locke p. They say that "Among the Greeks the power of the head of the house was less absolute, since it was considered a trust to be administered for the welfare of the family.

The Priestly texts are usually related to the reading of the law by Ezra. Pictured on vase of Argo. Before Christ and forward from here. Tacitus wrote about the Baltic tribes of Suioneso [Swedes?

Their naval craft had bow and stern constructed alike, equally well suited for landing, The oars were not fastened along the sides, but left free and they did not use sails. Hallendorff and Schuck p. Stone with engraved ship from the Roman iron age of the type described by Tacitus. The two centuries from AD to AD are a critical turning point in the Saint-Simonian system of history between the epoch with polytheist ideas and a society based on slavery, and that with "theological" ideas and a feudal organisation of society.

He rebuilt Byzantium , which was renamed Constantinopolis Constantinople , which became the new capital of the Empire, tolerated Christianity and other religions, and promoted Christianity throughout the empire. He called the First Council of Nicaea in at which the leaders of Christianity agreed unifying beliefs: The modern reconstruction uses wood and thatch.

Most houses are partially sunk in the ground. About to Muhammad. The Quran, the revelations of God to Muhammad from to , was compiled into a single book shortly after Muhammad's death.

It is the primary source of Shariah law. A translation into English was made in The long journey into British life. Iron helmet from ship burial ground at Vendel in Uppland, Sweden.

Early Germanic law codes were oral compilations of custom. Under contact with Rome, and literate civilisation, these laws began to be set down from the 7th century on. The Abbasids obtained the secret of papermaking from Chinese prisoners.

See Wikipedia Islam during the Tang dynasty It is also suggested that the Abbasid army brought back sugar cane from northern India. These fast ships had the strength to survive ocean crossings while having a draft of as little as 50cm 20 inches , allowing navigation in very shallow water".

Short at Hurstwic , Massachussets. The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire in West Africa existed from before about until about The history of hourglass shaped talking drums can be traced back to the Ghana Empire.

They may have migrated from the Sahara into the forested region around the 11th century. Microscope slides reveal that thee York coprolite came from someone who mainly ate meat and bread and who was infested with worms.

British Library Woodblock printing made the written word available to many more people during the Tang Dynasty to in China Wikipedia: History of printing in East Asia. Killed by the Great Heathen Army. Greenstead Church booklet published about When he stoutly refused he was tied to a tree, shot with arrows and afterwards beheaded The body of the martyred King was enshrined at Bedriceworth, modern Bury St Edmunds, and was greatly revered".

See coins - - - - Saint George. The Chronicle was begun in Alfred's reign about and one copy continued to be updated to Marc Bloch's Feudal Society covers the period roughly from the middle of the ninth century to the first decades of the 13th in western and central Europe.

He divides the period into a first and second feudal age, separated by "profound and widespread changes" towards the middle of the eleventh century The High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th , 12th , and 13th centuries. Wikipedia The two centuries from to are a critical turning point in the Saint-Simonian system of history between the epoch with "theological" ideas and a feudal organisation of society and that with positive, scientific ideas and an industrial social organisation.

On the way back in they may have rested in a Saxon timber church at Greensted. The timber nave wall of the present church may be the oldest surviving wooden church in the world, but counting the rings gives a date after In ships like this the last succesful invaders crossed the channel] See French - Latin - Old English. One of the reasons for this was that quill pens began to be cut at an angle, making it easier to produce these shapes.

The term gothic German was used in the 17th century to distinguish this style of writing from the French Carolingian. Gothic then was applied to the architecture of the period. These rocks in ancient times were earth and mud, and the conchs and. Genghis Khan established the Mongol Empire in It rapidly expanded by invasion and by stretched from Korea to Central Europe. Political stability re-established " silk road " trade between east and west.

Japan resists - Marco Polo's book - Ming Dynasty end of Mongols - end of silk road - sea route. Wikipedia timeline of the Mongol Empire. The Early English Period in architecture was the 13th century according to Panoyre and Ryan or the reign of Richard 1st to according to the originator of the term Thomas Rickman "guild-masters and journeyman" - " Towns were growing rapidly In a craft guild, a worker started as an apprentice unpaid trainee , might become a journeyman paid by the day , and finally might become a master.

In ships like this Christians sailed to fight what they regarded as holy wars against Islam. The drawing is based on the Dover seal of ] By muslims had re-captured all the territory in Syria held by the Crusaders. Early English parish chirch from Panoyre and Ryan about "Holy church is a house of prayer, born of heaven Christ does it call, to worship therein our saviour".

In this the Mongols are believed to be using Chinese gunpowder bombs. Lübeck's seal of the year , depicted in Ernst Wallis Illustrated verldshistoria , published in Stockholm in , page From about , Germans colonising conquered Baltic territories left from the north German port of Lübeck. It became the central Hanseatic trading city. The ship on its seal has similar features to Swedish boats 2, years before.

This has been reconstructed as the Kamper Kogge. Cogs were cargo ships operating from about to , mainly in the Baltic and North Sea for the Hanseatic League. They could carry heavy cargoes of cloth, salt, fish, butter, wine, furs, grain, wax, beer, copper, iron, oil, flax and similar goods. The traditional gold background gives a flat feeling that contrasts with the diagonals on the floor which use geometrical perspective to create depth.

Further outbreaks England in , , , , and during first half of the 15th century. Ornamental gardens and civilisation "The creation of ornamental gardens indicates a degree of civilisation and a settled economy Such conditions had obtained in China long before the Christian era and also for a long time in Persia, whence they spread to Turkey about A. At best it is 99 years and were Jesus to have been born in December AD1 as we celebrate it unlikely , it is nearer 98 years.

Why is the eg seventeenth century so called? Because it ends with so that is what it is! Mind you, this is a common mistake, after all the entire world celebrated the millennium a year early so you are not alone! The ancient regime in France ended with the French Revolution in It is the revolutionaries term for the social and political order they abolished.

But when did it begin? Wikipedia dates it from the 15th century. Others date it from She sailed from Norfolk to the continent in the Autumn of and followed the Rhine River to Switzerland, and then followed paths over the Alps to Italy, arriving in Venice in January and spent thirteen weeks, leaving in April She travelled from Venice to the Holy Land by sailing in a galley a ship moved mainly by oars probably to Jaffa, arriving in May.

On a mule or donkey she travelled through Ramlah to Jerusalem and visited Bethlehem. Returning to Italy she stayed in Assisi before going to Rome, where she arrived in September Leaving Rome in Easter , she travelled home though Middelburg in today's Netherlands , and sailed from Zealand to England probably Yarmouth on a two day voyage in a small ship in mid-May Sources 1 - 2.

See Die Familie About Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press but see China - Which is probably why the middle of the 15th century is the most popular date for starting "modern history" see above - Another suggested start is towards the end of the sixtenth century - - Although the Penguin Dictionary of Modern History starts in and finishes in ! Printing enables human rights. The She-Wolf , the Spinarius boy with thorn , the Camillus and the colossal head of Constantine , with hand and globe.

The Capitoline Museums trace their history back to this. The museums are mainly from and about Rome. Richard 3rd , last of the Plantagenets, replaced by Henry 7th , first of the English Tudor monarchs.

A skeleton believed to be that of Richard 3rd was disinterred in Leicester in September Richard's identity was "proved" by his mitochondrial DNA , handed down in an unbroken chain through the female line from his sister to two living relatives.

The shape of South America, however, resulted in Portugal claiming what became Brazil. The grant was conditional on their converting the natives to Christianity. Part of the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestry, dyed with weld yellow , madder red , and woad blue.

Dating from between and Bethlem "The earliest recorded uses of colour by man were from pigments from plant extracts".

Early in the 16th century, Paracelsus studied alchemy and chemistry at Basel University and learned the properties of metals and minerals in mines. His unorthodox mystical theories lost him the position of town physician of Basel , but through empirical experiment in pursuit of his dreams he made new chemical compounds and changed medicine and pharmacy.

See mental health history. Paracelsus sought to analyse matter into three elements: High Renaissance to It then crossed the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean and India. The start of the systematic trans-Atlantic transportation. Until slaves were shipped from Europe. Published in as Il Principe The Prince The publication of Luther's ninety-five theses became the official launch of protestant christianity.

The Bible was given priority over the church as the source of authority. The scope for religious disagreements multiplied as more and more people were able to read it for themselves.

The movement for the reform of the Catholic universal church and the breakaway of protestant and reformed churches is called The Reformation. Royal College of Physicians founded Ferdinand Magellan sailed from Spain with a fleet of five carracks - large ships with plenty of room for crew, provisions and a return cargo. Most treasure before came from Hispaniola, Porto Rica and Cuba. Hamilton William Tyndale's The New Testament in English printed in Germany and shipped into England against official hostility An anonymous herbal, an English translation of an unknown manuscript, published by the London printer, Richard Banckes, was the first English printed herbal.

It was small, without illustrations, and therefore relatively cheap. Alphabetical list followed by groups of plants for specific purposes and by plants for a pleasure garden. First clear indication of gardens solely for pleasure in Britain.

Amongst the plants were "Rosers" Harvey The first printed copy was in see Galileo. Division of labour and manufacture: That period, roughly speaking, extends from the middle of the 16th to the last third of the 18th century ". Marx chapter One of Marx's main examples is the division of labour in the manufacture of needles. Compare Adam Smith and pins. See also Communist Manifesto. Elizabethan domestic architecture might use brick or stone or timber frames according to local materials.

In London, narrow, timber framed houses commonly overhung the streets with each story wider than the one beneath. In the second half of the sixteenth century the words negro and niger entered the English language.

Niger meant black in Latin. From it derived Negro as black in Spanish and Portuguese. In the 15th century this had come to mean black people, especially African people from south of the Sahara. Due to colonial slavery , negro was also used for slaves, as when a writer in writes of "Spaniards, with their servants and Negroes".

From the mid-sixteenth century, the Portuguese attempt to monopolise the trade in African slaves and the Spanish attempt to possess all of America apart from Brazil - see - were challenged by French , English , Dutch , Danish and Swedish adventurers.

Adler von Lübeck Eagle of Lübeck , a galleon , was the world's largest ship when launched in March The flagship of the Hanseatic League , it could carry 1, men and had cannons to protect the Baltic trade. Palladio derived laws of architectural proportion for the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome.

He set out the principles for buildings in the "classical era" which has been dated as between and in England. According to Zygmunt Bauman and Timothy May, "It was roughly towards the end of the sixteenth century that in parts of western Europe" a picture of the social world as naturally ordered "began to fall apart".

Before this time, they say, is "often referred to as 'pre-modern'. The modern period "established itself in the western world approximately three centuries ago" , so the 17th century is their century of transition. In th history of social theory, we could relate the transition between "pictures of the social world" to the publication of Bodin's Six Livres de la Republique. Marx and Engels argued that one of the qualifications required by science is that its theories should start from material premises rather than theological ones.

In this sense, Bodin is one of the earliest founders of social science. In the woodcuts, astrological signs represent heaven above the earth. See and He was assassinated by a Catholic in See Social Science History , chapter two: James 6 of Scotland became James 1 of England Brick replacing timber: English Heritage describe brick buildings being built in 17th century London as small groups of two or three in streets, yards, and alleys, and as ribbon development along the main raods.

They were not just houses , but workshops, offices, shops, and taverns, each with a rear private space used either as a garden or as a backyard for trade or washing. Natural astrology argued that the position of the stars influenced nature, judicial astrology that they influenced individuals and society. Astrology adopted the idea of crises: Shakespeare 's Macbeth , cannot be dated precisely, but appears to many to be celebrating King James's ancestors and the Stuart accession to the throne in Some have suggested their are allusions to the Gunpowder plot.

Wikipedia The character of Lady Macbeth was used by Lombroso in as evidence for his conclusion that "violent women far exceed men in their ferocity and cruelly". Henry's widow initially acted as Regent for their son, Louis 13th. Under the guidance of his minister, Cardinal Richelieu, Henry 13th consolidated his royal power.

An "absolute monarchy" was established in France in his reign and that of his son, Louis 14th. It was dismissed in , and did not meet again until Francis Bacon was the Lord Chancellor of England from to Renamed the Oxford Botanic Garden in The next one so far south was in See Social Science History , chapter one: John Stuart Mill and his problems with Francis Bacon.

With a kitchen garden of all manner of herbs, roots and fruits, for meat or sauce used with us, and an orchard of all sort of fruitbearing trees and shrubs fit for our land. Together with the right ordering, planting and preserving of them and their uses and virtues Collected by John Parkinson Apothecary of London. See Ptolemy and Copernicus. Notes on Hobbes and Galileo and Hobbes on Deductions from simple axioms The Latin edition engraving left was published in , making the book international.

In the engraving, Aristotle discusses with Ptolemy holding an earth centred universe and Copernicus whose earth circles the sun If Copernicus was right , where is heaven? In there were twenty two master printers of London - Some licensed, some not. Saint Simon refers to "the two English revolutions of the 17th century".

One I take to be the civil war and the other the bloodless revolution of [See revolution]. It is not clear how much of he was imprisoned, but he was at liberty in He is still King - But from now on he is a king under duress. From June he was held by the army. An official document no longer official in England after specifying the Bible as a foundation of belief superior to though not, presumably, contradicted by nature.

May to October Peace of Westphalia - It is argued that the peace treaties recognised the territorial integrity of nation states. Carry out test welds and optimize the setting by turning Potentiometer 1. Coated stick electrodes The power source provides the operating mode Electrode for welding coated stick electrodes.

Please proceed as follows: Switch machine on Select the Operating mode by pressing the following key: When welding with Electrode the lower LED flashes see photo. The values to be programmed depend on the operating mode used. Once the welding programs are saved, they can be called up using the job number.

The following values are saved Material Wire diameter The abbreviations for the program steps are shown on display 3. The abbreviations are explained below: Gas preflow Main parameter 1 End crater program Wire "inching-in" The number of program steps depends on the operating mode used see P3 operating modes during programming. In our example the operating mode Prog has been selected where all program steps are possible.

Turn Potentiometer 1 and 2 at the Wire drive unit to mid-position. Press the key Operating mode for more than 1 second. The first program step to be made is setting of Gas preflow. You can now weld the sizes. Use the keys Up or Down until the required arc has been set. The potentiometers on the wire drive unit operation panel can be used for a precise setting. Main parameter 2 can be set. Proceed in the same way as described for setting the Capacity 1.

After setting the Main parameter 2, press the key Operating mode. You can now set Main parameter 3. Press the key Operating mode and set the required capacity. Start welding to determine the required value. Use the key Up or Down until the required arc has been set. If you press and release the key Operating mode now, the display jumps back to the value Gas preflow and shows the programmed value.

You can modify the values using the keys Up and Down or jump to the next value by pressing the Operating mode. P6 Correct a weld procedure sequence Call up a weld procedure sequence.

For modifications press the key Operating mode for approx. Machine number Extension from version V1. Remote controller - configuration LOC: The first parameter to be configured is the function of the key operated switch. This window is calculated from the standard value of the job and the set percentage value. Location of electrical faults of repairs must only be carried out by trained service personnel.

If a fault cannot be rectified by your own service staff, please contact your nearest official CLOOS reresentative. A list of addresses of Cloos representatives is enclosed see appendix. Welding machine cannot be switched on: Check the power lines.

Loose contact or arcing at:


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