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Indikationen und Fragestellungen

In these cases the composition often began and ended on a unison , the added voice keeping to the initial tone until the first part has reached a fifth or fourth, from where both voices proceeded in parallel harmony, with the reverse process at the end. Organum was originally improvised ; while one singer performed a notated melody the vox principalis , another singer—singing "by ear"—provided the unnotated second melody the vox organalis.

Over time, composers began to write added parts that were not just simple transpositions, thus creating true polyphony. The first document to describe organum specifically, and give rules for its performance, was the Musica enchiriadis c. The oldest methods of teaching organum can be found in the Scolica and the Bamberg Dialogues , along with the Musica enchiriadis.

The societies that have developed polyphony usually have several types of it found in their culture. In its original conception, organum was never intended as polyphony in the modern sense; the added voice was intended as a reinforcement or harmonic enhancement of the plainchant at occasions of High Feasts of importance to further the splendour of the liturgy.

The analogue evolution of sacred architecture and music is evident: Exactly what developments took place where and when in the evolution of polyphony is not always clear, though some landmarks remain visible in the treatises. As in these instances, it is hard to evaluate the relative importance of treatises, whether they describe the 'actual' practice or a deviation of it.

As key-concept behind the creative outburst that manifested in the 11th and 12th centuries is the vertical and harmonic expansion of dimension, as the strongly resonant harmony of organum magnified the splendour of the celebration and heightened its solemnity. One of the most astounding features of organum meaning "to sing in Symphoniae" [ citation needed ] is the similarity of the repertory in different manuscripts. The earliest European sources of information concerning organum regard it as a well-known practice Fuller , p.

Organum is also known to have been performed in several different rites, but the main wells of information concerning its history come from Gregorian chant. Considering that the trained singers had imbibed an oral tradition that was several centuries old, singing a small part of the chant repertory in straightforward heterophony of parallel harmony or other ways of 'singing by the ear' would come naturally.

It is made clear in the Musica enchiriadis that octave doubling was acceptable, since such doubling was inevitable when men and boys sang together. The 9th-century treatise Scolica enchiriadis treats the subject in greater detail. For parallel singing, the original chant would be the upper voice, vox principalis ; the vox organalis was at a parallel perfect interval below, usually a fourth.

Thus the melody would be heard as the principal voice, the vox organalis as an accompaniment or harmonic reinforcement. This kind of organum is now usually called parallel organum, although terms such as sinfonia or diaphonia were used in early treatises.

These two men were "the first international composers of polyphonic music" Waite , 2. These innovations are grounded in the forms of Gregorian chant, and adhere to the theoretical rhythmic systems of St. It is the composers' love for cantus firmus that caused the notation of the tenor line to stay the same, even when the methods of penning music were changing.

It was the use of modal rhythm , however, that would make these two men great. Modal rhythm is defined clearly as a succession of unequal notes arranged in a definite pattern. The Notre Dame composers' development of musical rhythm allowed music to be free from its ties to text. The Musica enchiriadis documented a practice which obviously had been in use for some time, although it has not been possible to establish even an approximate dating for the commencement of the practice, which may go back hundreds of years.

Both of the Enchiriadis treatises are primarily works on the concept of a mathematical derivation of the gamut and the modes based on theories of conjunct and disjunct tetrachords series of four pitches involving fixed tone and semitone relationships within them.

To some extent it is probable that the treatment given to organum was a treatment designed to explain it in the terms of the evolving theory of the gamut not least by the observation that parallel fourths outline tetrachords , and was not a descriptive or prescriptive manual of practical organum. For that, we can turn to Ad Organum faciendum , Anonymous, c which is just such a manual: In letter-notation two organa are given as examples: Iustus ut palma" and "Kyrie trope Cunctipotens", in two voices, predominantly punctus contra punctum , "note against note".

The Kyrie chant is the lower part, the new part finds a different harmony for every note of the chant and the same applies to the Alleluia. It is also worth noting that strict parallel organum does not generally occur in either of these early treatises as an end in itself. The aesthetic underpinning the use of these other intervals usually to do with the concept of a "boundary tone" to preserve the modal integrity, or in order to avoid harmonic tritones or accidentals foreign to the mode was explored in more detail by Guido of Arezzo in his Micrologus of around AD The most pervasive examples of strict "parallel organum" in fact occur only in insular Germanic repertories of the 13th century onwards, and not in the very much earlier Enchiriadis treatises, the works of Guido, or in the various interpretations of the Winchester Troper in which can be found passages which appear to be notated heterophony at the unison, although transcription problems confound absolute certainty in this.

After parallel organum, the next development to arise in the practice of organum is postulated to be that of free organum. The earliest examples of this style dating from around — the Micrologus of Guido of Arezzo and the Winchester Troper utilise parallel motion and oblique motion upper voice moving while the tenor holds one note , but the introduction of contrary motion voices moving in opposite directions as well as similar motion voices moving in the same direction, but to different intervals led to progressively freer musical lines—a prerequisite element of counterpoint.

There exists a number of manuscript fragments of the later 11th century and into the 12th century which document the changing styles, from the works of Johannes Cotto also referred to as John Cotton or Joannes Afflighemensis to the so-called Chartres fragments.

Although free organum is mostly isochronous meaning that the two voices move in the same pace, there are examples of more than one note of the organal voice against one note in the tenor; another precursor of contrapuntal techniques. Special Feature Sensor'd Enterprise: IoT, ML, and big data.

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