Imperial Cleaning

Appaloosa Pattern-1 (PATN1)

They made the discovery in a makeshift laboratory set up in a picturesque farmhouse in Kent , England , called Mann's Place.

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Fungal poisoning - Mycotoxicosis Fungal poisoning - Mycotoxicosis. However, a definite causal association cannot be made since some affected cats are FHV-negative Nasisse et al.

Viral DNA has been detected in the aqueous humour of a larger proportion of cats suffering from uveitis as compared to healthy cats, suggesting that FHV may play a role in the inflammation Maggs et al. Chronic rhinosinusitis, a frequent cause of sneezing and nasal discharge, has also been associated with the infection; however, viral DNA is detected only in some affected cats, and also in healthy controls Henderson et al.

Other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus spp. The preferred method to detect FHV in biological samples is PCR, but virus isolation is still used in several laboratories.

The sensitivity and specificity of the tests, especially of PCR, differ depending on the laboratory because of a lack of standardisation. Most PCR primers are based on the highly conserved thymidine kinase gene. Molecular diagnostic methods are more sensitive than virus isolation or indirect immunofluorescence Reubel et al.

Because of the minute amounts of viral nucleic acid detectable by PCR, positive test results should be interpreted with caution — they may not prove any association with the disease. The sensitivity of PCR depends on the test format Maggs and Clarke, ; the system should include a control to measure feline DNA, to estimate the quantity of material on the swab, and to check for inhibitory substances.

Consequently, its diagnostic value for clinical infection may be poor, depending on the test sensitivity, the samples analysed biopsies and corneal scrapings yield positive results more frequently than conjunctival samples and the population tested e. Additionally, PCR tests can detect FHV DNA in modified-live virus vaccines Maggs and Clarke, ; it is unknown if vaccinal strains are detected in recently vaccinated animals and for how long after vaccination. A positive PCR result may indicate low level shedding or viral latency and does not mean that the virus is responsible for the observed clinical signs, although it indicates the possibility of recurring signs in the future.

However, when quantitative real-time PCR is used Vögtlin et al. If low copy numbers are detected in corneal scrapings, this would indicate a latent infection.

When considering molecular diagnosis in clinical practice, the use of fluorescein and topical anaesthetics should be avoided, because these compounds may affect PCR sensitivity Gould, It is advisable to contact the diagnostic laboratory in advance for details of sample collection and shipping, which is mostly done with regular mail at ambient temperature Maggs, Using the same sample, PCR allows the simultaneous detection of other feline pathogens frequently implicated in respiratory and ocular diseases, especially Chlamydia felis and, less reliably, feline calicivirus Helps et al.

In cats undergoing primary FHV infection, the virus can be detected by isolation from conjunctival, nasal or pharyngeal swabs or scrapings, or from post-mortem lung samples. In chronic infections, VI may be difficult.

Samples must be collected before application of fluorescein or Rose Bengal stain, which inhibit viral replication in cell culture Brooks et al.

Also, clinical specimens must be sent quickly to the laboratory, and refrigerated during shipping. For these logistic reasons and despite its good sensitivity in acute disease, VI is not routinely used for FHV infection diagnosis. FHV-specific antigen can be detected by immunofluorescence assay IFA on conjunctival or corneal smears or biopsy specimens.

As for VI, the use of fluorescein should be avoided before sampling, which may give false-positive results and make test interpretation difficult.

Because of its low sensitivity and the interference with fluorescein, often used in ophthalmology practice, IFA is not the most suitable diagnostic test in chronic ocular disease Nasisse et al.

Due to natural infection and vaccination, seroprevalence is high, and the demonstration of specific antibodies consequently does not correlate with disease and active infection Maggs et al.

Moreover, antibody detection does not allow differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals, neutralizing antibodies are undetectable until 20 to 30 days after a primary infection, and titres may be low, both in animals with acute and chronic disease. Consequently serology is of limited value in the diagnosis of feline herpesvirus infection Nasisse and Weigler, ; Maggs et al.

The restoration of fluids, electrolytes and the acid-base balance e. Food intake is extremely important. Many sick cats do not eat because of their loss of smell due to nasal congestion, or because of ulcers in the oral cavity.

Food may be blended to cause less pain when eating, should be highly palatable, and may be warmed up to increase the smell. If the cat has not eaten for three days, placement of a nasal or oesophageal feeding tube is indicated. To prevent bacterial infection, antibiotics should be given in all acute cases of feline upper respiratory tract disease, preferably broad-spectrum products with good penetration in the respiratory tract.

Severely affected cats need intensive nursing care and appropriate supportive therapy. Nasal discharge should be cleaned away several times a day using physiologic saline solution, and local ointment applied. Drugs with mucolytic effects e. Eye drops or ointment can be administered several times a day Tab. Nebulisation of saline can be used to take care of dehydration of the airways.

The amino acid l-lysine has been proposed for systemic treatment, to be administered as a bolus, separate from food. No side effects have been published, but reports on efficacy are conflicting Maggs, , ; Stiles et al. FHV was not inhibited at any l-lysine concentration studied. The in vivo efficacy of the measure on primary and recurrent FHV infection is unknown. Other drugs have been proposed for the treatment of FHV ocular infections, including bromovinyldeoxyuridine, HPMA, ribavirin, valacyclovir, vidarabine, foscarnet and lactoferrin.

However, the efficacy of these drugs has not been proven. This infection is common and may induce severe, even life-threatening disease. Vaccines provide protection through both an antibody response and cellular immunity. Vaccination provides protection against clinical signs and reduces viral shedding within one week after administration Jas et al.

In addition, it can reduce field virus excretion Gaskell et al. Even less protection is expected under particular circumstances like extreme challenge doses or immunosuppression. Field strain variation does not play a role in protection provided by vaccination. Most current FHV vaccines are combined with FCV, either as bivalent products only in some countries or with additional antigens. Both modified live and inactivated parenteral vaccines are available. Subunit FHV vaccines and modified intranasal vaccines have been or still are available elsewhere, but no longer in Europe.

For routine vaccination, there is no reason to prefer any FHV vaccine above another, since all are based on a single serotype. Modified live vaccines might retain some pathogenic potential and may rarely induce disease, e. The value of serological tests in predicting protection is controversial. Methodological issues can complicate comparison of titres particularly when obtained from different laboratories , and they are no good predictors of protection.

Also, cats without any evidence of seroconversion have been found protected Lappin et al. Vaccinated cats usually develop an anamnestic response upon field infection.

Maternal antibodies interfere with the response to vaccination until 8 weeks of age on average Poulet, ; the primary course of vaccination is therefore usually started at around 9 weeks of age, although some products are licensed for earlier use. Kittens should receive a second vaccination 2 to 4 weeks later, with the second given around 12 weeks of age.

This protocol has been developed to ensure optimal protection. For longer intervals, no information is available. After the kitten primary vaccination course all cats receive an additional vaccine dose at 10 to 16 months of age; this will ensure adequate vaccine induced immunity for cats that may not have adequately responded to the primary course. In contrast to vaccines against other infectious agents, where a single vaccination is acceptable for adult cats of unknown or uncertain vaccination status, in the case of FHV two vaccinations at an interval of 2 to 4 weeks are recommended, irrespective of the vaccine type, and a boost one year later.

ABCD recommends that further revaccinations should be given at annual intervals to protect individual cats against field infections. In low-risk situations e. An informed decision should be taken on the basis of a risk-benefit analysis, but annual revaccinations are particularly important in high risk situations, e. Experimental studies and serological surveys in the field have clearly shown that immunity against FHV lasts longer than one year Lappin et al.

In experimental vaccine efficacy studies, protection clearly decreases with time. If revaccinations have lapsed, a single injection is adequate if the interval since the last vaccination is not more than three years; if it is more than three years, two injections three weeks apart should be applied. Cats that have recovered from disease caused by FHV may not enjoy lifelong protection against further episodes. In most clinical cases, the causative agent will not have been identified and the cat may contract infection with other respiratory pathogens.

To be on the safe side, vaccination of recovered cats is still generally recommended. FHV infection is common in multi-cat households. Depending on the management, ABCD recommendations will refer either to shelters or to breeding catteries. FHV infections can pose a problem in cat shelters. Management to prevent and limit the spread of infection is as important as vaccination.

In shelters where incoming cats are mixed with resident ones, high infection rates are frequent. Shelter design and management measures should be aimed at avoiding cross infections. New cats should be vaccinated as soon as possible when they are healthy and no contraindications to vaccination have been found. If there is a particularly high risk, e.

In an acute respiratory disease outbreak, identification of the agent involved — with differentiation between FHV and FCV — can be useful in deciding on the appropriate preventive measures. FHV infections can be a major problem in breeding catteries, where they most often appear in young kittens before weaning — typically around 4 to 8 weeks of age, when maternally derived immunity wanes.

The source of infection is often the queen, who is the virus carrier and whose latent infection has been reactivated in the course of kittening and lactation.

Infection in such young kittens is often severe, involving the entire litter. Mortality can be important, and some kittens that have recovered from the acute disease are left with complications, notably chronic rhinitis. Vaccination of the queen is no option since it will not prevent her from becoming a carrier.

However, if the queen has a good antibody titre, the kittens will benefit from high levels of MDA transferred through the colostrum, which provide protection against disease for the first weeks of life. Booster vaccinations of the queen may therefore be indicated, which should ideally take place prior to mating.

Exceptionally, vaccination during pregnancy may be considered if this measure had been overlooked , but vaccines are not licensed for use in pregnant cats, and in this situation, an inactivated product is preferable. Early vaccination should be considered for litters from queens that had infected litters previously. The earliest age for which FHV vaccines are licensed is 6 weeks, but kittens may become susceptible to infection earlier than this as MDA wanes.

Vaccination from around 4 weeks of age may be considered, to be repeated every 2 weeks until the primary vaccination course is given as usual. Early weaning into isolation from around 4 weeks of age is an alternative approach to protecting kittens from maternal infection. There are no reliable tests that will identify carrier queens and predict which may infect their kittens.

Vaccines will not establish immunity in animals with a compromised immune function. Systemic disease, genetic and virus-induced immunodeficiency, poor nutrition, concurrent administration of immunosuppressive drugs and severe, prolonged stress all are compromising factors. Such patients should be protected from exposure to infectious agents in the first place, but vaccination using an inactivated product should be considered. If this is not possible, vaccination should be considered.

Concerns have been raised that vaccination may contribute to the progression of FIV disease, but the benefit of protecting a potentially immunocompromised cat outweighs this small risk.

Also, other infections may contribute to FIV progression. In FIV-positive cats with a history of clinical problems but in a stable medical condition, vaccination should be considered to ensure that FHV protection is maintained.

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